Sunday, May 17, 2020

Essay on James Joyces Araby - Araby as Epiphany for the...

James Joyces Dubliners - Araby as Epiphany for the Common Man Joseph Campbell was one of many theorists who have seen basic common denominators in the myths of the worlds great religions, Christianity among them, and have demonstrated how elements of myth have found their way into non-religious stories. Action heroes, in this respect, are not unlike saints. Biblical stories are, quite simply, the mythos of the Catholic religion, with saints being the heroes in such stories. The Star Wars film saga is, according to Campbell, an example of the heros maturation via the undertaking of a great quest. Though it is a safe assumption that many of todays film makers are unconscious of the extent to which their narratives approach†¦show more content†¦Armed with a florin held tightly in his hand, the boy embarks on his journey to the bazaar, his self-assigned mission being to purchase a gift for his beloved. The gift is to be a gestured to liberate Mangans sister--in spirit if not in body--because she will be with a retreat that week at her conv ent. The journey for him becomes a passage from relative safety and gregariousness into a place of darkness and isolation. It is only there that he comes to a realization--an epiphany. His story follows a similar pattern to the Myth of Orpheus descent into the Underworld, and Mangans sister here doubles for Eurydice. As Eurydice is trapped in the Stygian Realm, Mangans sister is also trapped. We have already mentioned here entrapment by her duty to the convent, which she mentions to the boy while turning a silver bracelet around her wrist, conjuring the image of a manacle fettering her to one spot. And, in a metaphoric sense, she is trapped by the repressive Irish culture from which Joyce voluntarily exiled himself. (Joyce does not hide his disenchantment with his homeland. North Richmond Street is blind--a dead end street. There are images of cold, musty air, darkness, and even odorous ashpits as part of the setting. It can be argued that Joyce is characterizing his Dublin as a hell or Purgatory.) As Orpheus descends into the Underworld for Eurydice, so too does the boy make his descent intoShow MoreRelatedThe Quests Of Araby And A Worn Path984 Words   |  4 Pa gesThe Quests in â€Å"Araby† and â€Å"A Worn Path† Both â€Å"Araby† (1914) by James Joyce, and â€Å"A Worn Path† by Eudora Welty (1941) pursue life through a journey. The protagonists, Phoenix Jackson in â€Å"A Worn Path† and Joyce’s narrator in â€Å"Araby,† embark on an errand out of love. In â€Å"Araby,† Joyce’s narrator develops an infatuation for Mangan’s sister. He laments, â€Å"I had never spoken to her, except for a few casual words, and yet her name was like a summons to all my foolish blood† (Joyce 200). He volunteers toRead MoreHuman Intuition2406 Words   |  10 Pagescalled an epiphany. An epiphany, as a feeling, is a sudden realization or comprehension of the essence or meaning of something (Wikipedia). An epiphany, in other words, is when someone has found the last piece of the puzzle and now sees the whole picture. An epiphany is accomplished when new information or a new experience, normally insignificant by itself, illuminates a deeper or numin ous foundational frame of reference (Wikipedia). Common clichà ©s, that people use to describe an epiphany, areRead MoreChange: The Seed of Evolution2514 Words   |  11 Pagesrealized is known as an epiphany--a sudden understanding of the nature to an idea or quandary, usually attained through something simple and, sometimes, unassociated (â€Å"Epiphany†). Authors often use this device not only to convey a realization on the part of their character, but also to allude to an internal message (â€Å"Epiphany†). James Joyce employed this device in many of his works in hopes of revealing to his Irish peers the low esteem of their conduct (Bulson 33). James Joyce was born in IrelandRead MoreEssay on James Joyces Araby1177 Words   |  5 PagesJames Joyce was an Irish born author whose descriptions of the mundane life in his hometown of Dublin led to a collection of short stories that include some of the most widely read pieces of British literature. This collection known as the â€Å"Dubliners† contains 15 short stories that each centers around a different group of characters and reveals a new theme about life in the city. In Joyces Araby, part of the â€Å"Dubliners† collection, a young and nameless narrator becomes enamored with his friendRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcoholism In The Dubliners By James Joyce2072 Words   |  9 PagesIreland in his stories is James Joyce. Joyce wrote a collection of short stories, The Dubliners. These short stories take place in Dublin, Ireland. One common theme in all of these stories is the suffering the characters go through. Another theme in all of the stories is alcoholism. Mos t of his stories feature a character who is an alcoholic. The alcoholic tends to create problems for the people around him. By using alcoholics to further the plots of his stories, James Joyce pins the blame for IrishRead MoreSucker And Araby Summary2083 Words   |  9 PagesA Comparison of Adolescence in the Short Stories â€Å"Sucker† and â€Å"Araby† Originating from the Latin verb â€Å"adolescere†, adolescence is the period in which an individual develops personal identity and autonomy in the pursuit of comfortable affiliations, goals and convictions. Narrated by Pete, Carson McCullers’s story â€Å"Sucker† Pete and his cousin Sucker struggle to transition from childhood to adulthood. The story covers a flashback in which the narrator reflects on his relationship with his youngerRead MoreComparing Adolescence And Maturity During The Short Stories Sucker And Araby 2084 Words   |  9 PagesComparing Adolescence and Maturity in the Short Stories â€Å"Sucker† and â€Å"Araby† Adolescence emanates from the Latin verb adolescere which means to grow into maturity. In other words, it is the period in which an individual must establish a sense of personal identity. In the Carson McCullers’s story â€Å"Sucker† two young characters struggle with their transition to adulthood. The narrator Pete, is 16, and the older of the two boys by about three years. The stories action covers an extended flashback inRead MoreSucker By James Joyce Analysis2089 Words   |  9 Pagesaffection, Pete verbally assaults Sucker causing their relationship to deteriorate. On the other hand, James Joyce’s short story Araby, is about a young boy obsessing over a girl who lives across the street. When the young girl mentions her glaring desire to attend a certain bazaar called Araby, he sees this as an opportunity to win her heart; by attending the bazaar himself and bringing her back a gift. Araby to the narrator represents excitement and a chance to prove his love, however, it fills neitherRead MoreJames Joyces Story Araby, By Carson Mccullers2068 Words   |  9 Pagesaffection, Pete verbally assaults Sucker causing their relationship to deteriorate. On the other hand, James Joyce’s short story Araby, is about a young boy obsessing over a girl who lives across the street. When the young girl mentions her glaring desire to attend a certain bazaar called Araby, he sees this as an opportunity to win her heart; by attending the bazaar himself and bringing her back a gift. Araby to the narrator represents excitement and a chance to prove his love, however, it fills neitherRead MoreEssay on James Joyces Araby3507 Words   |  15 PagesJames Joyces Araby I doubt there are book logs that commence with a note directing a reader, specifically you, even though I get the impression from Mr. Little to whom riding between pairs of glasses suggesting that in order to gather a bounty against my beloved head I must be obliged to fathoming on how to receive topic sentences with cradling arms and craters of dimples (have to love formalities, even of those lolling head-stumps, after all, it keeps NATO all trite

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Star Wars and Vietnam - 926 Words

When considering the film Star Wars: Return of the Jedi and the Vietnam war that entrenched the United States into armed conflict, it is plain to see that there exists a level of disapproval about our actions in said war. Even though there doesn’t exist an apparent motive for the film’s production, there exists an underlying reason or theme behind this film in particular. As we will see, once the connection is made, it will hard to distinguish between the battles taking place within the film and the actual events that occurred in Vietnam. The movie is first and foremost a science fiction film that portrays political, social, and spiritual conflict in a galaxy far far away and a very long time ago. Although, it is hard to take out personal biases about what is going on during the time you produce a film and what affects you politically. Therefore, knowingly or not, ideologies and personal opinions make their way into the piece of art that you direct and make. We must fir st start off with the usage and character of the ‘Ewok† that inhabit the planet of Endor. These mammalian bipeds represent not only a small â€Å"teddy bear-like† tribe that lives on the planet but a representation of the Viet Cong and the tactics they used to fool and disrupt the Americans while in South Vietnam. This is not as farfetched as we can believe. George Lucas himself, in the â€Å"making of† documentary for Return of the Jedi mentions this idea himself. It makes sense as well. When we look at the Ewoks andShow MoreRelatedThe Star Wars Film On The Vietnam War1874 Words   |  8 Pages(Forbes) The Star Wars films show similarities to various aspects of history and American society. It has been proven that George Lucas wrote the movies based on The Vietnam War, with aspects of other American events. It is evident that these aspects have had a major influence on the concept of â€Å"War in America† after the release and success of the Star Wars movies. This will be investigated by analyzing the movies, critical reviews, and other texts relating to the subject. Star Wars was originallyRead MoreThe Man I Killed, by Tim OBrien1229 Words   |  5 PagesWe have to start treating Vietnam as a country and not a war. Itll take the old age and death of all veterans before it stops being our 51st state (Alvarez, 2013). In the story The Man I Killed, Tim OBrien, who served in the U.S military in Vietnam, describes the guilt many American soldiers felt about the atrocities they committed in Vietnam. Vietnam is not an appendage of America. That sort of thinking got us into the mess in the first place. Were bound together by some painful history,Read MoreAmerica Over Ruled By Technology714 Words   |  3 PagesDuring the Vietnam War, President Johnson and the government had decided to go to war with North Vietnam to prevent the spread of communism. The Vietnam War was one of the many events that gave the tribe members great opportunities. Beers â€Å"father’s company made one of the jet fighters that strafed and bombed North Vietnam, the F-104.† (127) President Johnson thought that we would win this war, but instead we ended up losing majority of our troops and were forced to flee South Vietnam. In the longRead MoreTourism : A Large Fraction Of The World s Economy1296 Words   |  6 Pagesof them. Vietnam is an example of being stereotyped by the films produced. Most films that include Vietnam only mention the Vietnam War, which was from 1961 – 1973 (U.S. Department of State 2013), travel guides still use the war to gain profit, â€Å"The subtitle above – ‘Vietnam, a country made famous by a war’ – is taken from the opening line in the popular guidebook Lonely Planet: Vietnam (Florence and Storey, 2001: 11). It reveals the crucial role the American War plays in promoting Vietnam as a touristRead MoreThe Things They Carried by Tim Obrien1426 Words   |  6 PagesThe War at Home The Things They Carried, by Tim O’Brien, transports the reader into the minds of veterans of the Vietnam conflict. The Vietnam War dramatically changed Tim O’Brien and his comrades, making their return home a turbulent and difficult transition. The study, titled, The War at Home: Effects of Vietnam-Era Military Service on Post-War Household Stability, uses the draft lottery as a â€Å"natural experiment† on the general male population. The purpose of the NBER (National Bureau of EconomicRead MoreConspiracy Theories: Moon Landing Essay1292 Words   |  6 Pagesmade videos about why they believed NASA faked the moon landings. Based on their observations which include no stars in their pictures, NASAs drive to beat the Russians to the moon, and a way to distract people from the Vietnam war, the group believes that the moon landings were faked. If you notice in all the pictures that NASA has taken of the first moon landing, there are no stars in the sky. In July of 1969, many Americans watched Neil Armstrong as he took that first step on the moon. MoreRead MoreHendrix and Vietnam1205 Words   |  5 PagesThe Relationship Between The Vietnam War And Music Of The U.S.A. Case Study: Jimi Hendrix This essay looks at musician Jimi Hendrixs musical reactions to the American involvement in the Vietnam War. This research has taken place as part of a larger piece of work examining the links between the Vietnam War and Music in the U.S.A. US troops became officially involved in the war from 1965 and didnt withdraw until 1973 following the signing of the Paris Peace Accords. During this time 58Read MoreFollowership And Leadership Of General Schwarzkopf876 Words   |  4 PagesStates Army as a follower and a leader. Schwarzkopf’s Army career began with experiencing the Vietnam War, Cold War and eventually commanding the US Central Command (CENTCOM) during Operation Desert Storm and Desert Shield. His ability as a follower and leader influenced multiple layers of personnel in executing military operations, and fostering affiliations amongst the military leadership in the fog of war. This paper will focus on followership and leadership of General Schwarzkopf successful ArmyRead MoreFields of Fire Book Review Essay1264 Words   |  6 PagesTyler Yancey American History, Period 1 Fields of Fire 2013 February 22 Review of Fields of Fire Fields of Fire by James Webb is a historical novel first published in 1978 that takes place in the year 1969 during the Vietnam War. Although there are many characters that are significant to the story, the novel focuses mainly on three marines who find themselves in a platoon with each other; Robert E. Lee Hodges, â€Å"Snake,† and Will â€Å"Senator† Goodrich. Webb gives the reader a great, detailed backgroundRead MoreNorman Schwarzkopf : His Fiery Temper And His Strategic Mind1011 Words   |  5 Pagesgraduated from West Point and fought in Vietnam War in 1983. Norman Schwarzkopf was nicknamed â€Å"Stormin’ Norman and was known for his fiery temper and his strategic mind. Schwarzkopf grew up with 2 older sisters named Ruth Ann and Sally. His was father was Colonel H, Norman Schwarzkopf who ended up serving in World War 1 and founded the New Jersey State Police. His father also worked on the famous 1932 kidnapping case of Charles Lindbergh son and then se rved in World War II. Schwarzkopf later want to school

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Imaging Of Traumatic Brain Injuries Essay - 1585 Words

Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injuries: An Investigative Report INTRODUCTION Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) consist of pathological intracranial characteristics of altered brain function cause by an outside force. TBI’s have plagued emergency rooms in recent years. TBI’s are the number one cause for death and disability in American youth and young adults. The drastic increase in TBI prognosis has been credited for reasons such as; increased competitiveness in sports, increased speeds of automobiles and/or speed limits, increased incidence of thrill seekers, as well as advancement of imaging modalities. The development of certain imaging protocols has made diagnosis of TBI’s more common. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have paved the way in the imaging and identifying process of TBI’s. With the variety of different levels of severity of TBI’s, the diagnostic imaging and the associated application of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is crucial. The GCS is a point scale in which a health care professi onal can rate the severity of a brain injury and use a numeric value to objectively track the progress or decline in the patient’s health. In some cases, the TBI may inflict secondary vascular trauma in which the GCS may assist in detecting. Physicians have coined the term â€Å"silent epidemic† to describe TBI’s.1 This means TBI’s can go undetected; therefore the patient with the TBI may go untreated. Even with CT being the leading imaging modality inShow MoreRelatedMedical Imaging Of Traumatic Brain Injuries Essay1520 Words   |  7 PagesMedical Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injuries INTRODUCTION Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) consist of pathological intracranial features of alteration in brain function cause by an outside force. TBI’s have plagued emergency rooms in recent years. TBI’s are the number one cause for death and disability in American youth and young adults. The drastic increase in TBI prognosis has been credited to reasons such as; increased competitiveness in sports, increased speeds of automobiles and/or speed limitsRead MoreAdvance Assessment Of Concussion Diagnosis1542 Words   |  7 PagesThe following essay will outline Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Electroencephalography (EEG) as advanced imaging tools that researchers have used to outline the effects of concussion on the brain. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a task-based neuroimaging technique that measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow using blood-oxygen-levelRead MoreSymptoms And Injuries Of A Traumatic Brain Injury841 Words   |  4 Pages Nearly two million people experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI) every year. The degree of severity from the incident may range from no underlying brain injury to severe compression of brain tissue. Irregular interior surface of skull can damage fragile tissues of brain during acceleration, deceleration, or shearing forces. Direct mechanical trauma can injure cortical tissue. Traumatic hematomas can damage subcortical structures and lead to vasospasm and ischemia. Sudden movement of skull onRead MoreTraumatic Brain Injury Essay1284 Words   |  6 Pages Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the result of an external force against the head that causes displacement of the cranial structures, either through impact with an object or through acceleration and deceleration. TBI is not isolated to a single ethnic group, socioeconomic class, or region (Berquist et al., 2009; Jang et al., 2013). In 2002, the United States had the highest incidence of reported TBI cases of any developed country. The incidence of hospital admissions due to closed head injuriesRead MoreChronic Traumatic Ptsd ( Cte )1522 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the current understanding of a form of progressive dementia that used to be classified as punch drunk syndrome in boxers as early as the 1920s all the way up until the 1950s and 1960s 6. What makes this disease so elusive is its difficulty to be detected until postmortem autopsies are conducted 6. As a consequence, several professional athletes experiencing head injuries were unaware of the fatal consequences of participating in sports involvingRead MoreRecent Epidemiological Studies Have Linked Mild Traumatic1509 Words   |  7 Pageslinked mild traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for dementia. Estimated that 100 to 300 per 100,000 people seek medical attention for mTBI annually worldwide. Due to not all persons with mTBI seeking medical attention it is estimated that 600 per 100,000 have a mTBI annually. Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as: Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Chronic Traumatic EncephalopathyRead MoreUse Of A Traumatic Brain Injury1117 Words   |  5 Pagestermed as Traumatic Brain Injury is an intracranial injury that often occurs when an external force is applied on the brain. A 1.4 million people, every year in the United States experience TBI, as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [2]. Approximately 5.3 million Americans live with long-term disability as a result of TBI [4]. Advancements in the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has helped image TBI better. Techniques like Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI),Read MoreEssay on Traumatic Brain Injury1393 Words   |  6 PagesTraumatic Brain Injury Your kitten is on the kitchen counter. She is about to step onto a hot stove. You have only seconds to act. Accessing the signals coming from your eyes, your brain quickly calculates when, where, and at what speed you will need to dive to intercept her. Then it orders your muscles to do so. Your timing is perfect and shes safe. No computer can come close to your brains awesome ability to download, process, and react to the flood of information coming from your eyes, earsRead MoreThe Between Ptsd And Tbi992 Words   |  4 Pageseffects of brain damage and the consequences or effects of PTSD, the level of damage and mitigative roles to combat the situation. Findings The effects of war are often very lessen, some factions wanting to downplay those effects in order to support your efforts and others wanting to inflate them in order to support peace. There is a disagreement in terms of persistent post concussive symptoms that are reported by Iraq combat veteran who have had repeated episodes of mild traumatic brain injury from beingRead MoreAcupuncture Treated Patient Who Received A Traumatic Brain Injury From A Snowboarding Accident Essay980 Words   |  4 PagesThis case report illustrates the improvement of an acupuncture-treated patient who received a traumatic brain injury from a snowboarding accident. The patient progressed from initially not being able to walk, having difficultly with speech, and poor eyesight, to where he has now regained significant motor function, speech and vision and has returned to snowboarding. This case shows the beneficial effects of acupuncture when tailored to the patient’s condition. Through a core acupun cture protocol

William Shakespeare s Oedipus - 1977 Words

Immediately Oedipus boldly launches a campaign to do what is best for his people and for himself†¦ I also, as is meet, will lend my aid To avenge this wrong to Thebes and to the god. Not for some far-off kinsman, but myself, Shall I expel this poison in the blood; For whoso slew that king might have a mind To strike me too with his assassin hand. A touch of selfishness is revealed in the above passage, a not-unexpected accompaniment of â€Å"godlike mastery.† Oedipus, in his public proclamation regarding punishment for the killer of King Laius, shows more lenient treatment toward the guilty party if he confesses his crime†¦ Thebans, if any knows the man by whom Laius, son of Labdacus, was slain, I summon him to make clean shrift to me.†¦show more content†¦. . .(106) Additonal strength is displayed by Oedipus, a mental strength, in addition to pride, with his remarkable fluency and verbal manhandling, demonstrated in his cross-examination of the holy man Teiresias, â€Å"Monster! thy silence would incense a flint. /Will nothing loose thy tongue? Can nothing melt thee, /Or shake thy dogged taciturnity?† When the king is confronted with Teiresias’ accusation, â€Å"Thou art the man, /Thou the accursed polluter of this land,† Oedipus’ equanimity comes from a prideful inner strength? Teiresias pursues with another even more condemning accusation, â€Å"I say thou livest with thy nearest kin /In infamy, unwitting in thy shame.† Indeed, a less self-confident king would have succumbed to a fit of rage; self-control is an aspect of Oedipus’ strong confidence and mastery. Oedipus, because of Teiresias’ strange behavior, suspe cts collusion between him and Creon, and publicly expresses his suspicions vociferously. Shortly, Creon, motivated by the rumors, emerges to defend himself in a friendly manner†¦ Friends, countrymen, I learn King Oedipus Hath laid against me a most grievous charge, And come to you protesting. If he deems That I have harmed or injured him in aught By word or deed in this our present trouble, I care not to prolong the span of life. . . . Creon expresses deep feelings of regret that he should be thought hurtful to his fellowmen – a most charitable notion flowing from the heart of a truly upright

Business and Corporations Law Modern and Contract

Question: Describe about the Business and Corporations Law for Modern and Contract. Answer: 1. The aim is to find the presence of considerations for given situations and conclude that whether Jack has an enforceable agreement which is legally binding on Jane. (a) In this scenario, Jane is the offeror and Jack is the offeree. Jane is going overseas, hence she has offered her car to Jack, and Jack has agreed to take the car from Jane. This scenario is having both the elements to enact an agreement i.e. valid offer and acceptance. However, the question arises in this situation is to verify the presence of the consideration (Gibson Fraser, 2014). Jane the offeror has not revealed any consideration amount for the exchange of the Lotus Super 7 Sports car from Jack. Thus, this case is having lack of consideration. According to the contract law, any agreement will be termed as void, if it does not have valid consideration. It can be the price made by the offeror to the offeree. This consideration value must be paid by the offeree in the exchange of the offer. Any valid consideration can have the tendency to bind both the parties into the enforceable agreement (Taylor Taylor, 2015). The court has provided the decision in Placer Development Ltd. Commonwealth [(1969) 121 CLR 353], that in any case, when there is any uncertainty to determine the consideration amount, then the case does not have valid consideration and results in void agreement (Davenport Parker, 2014). It is also a critical feature that the offeror must inform the offeree about the consideration amount with any mode of communication, it can be direct or indirect. Also, the offeree cannot adopt any consideration amount without the confirmation from offeror. It is the prerequisite for the valid consideration that the consideration amount must be valid and lawful as per the civil law, besides the fact that it is regulatory value or non-regulatory value (Paterson, Robertson, Duke, 2015). In this situation, Jane has not asked for any value for her Lotus Super 7 Sports to Jack, this indicates the invalid consideration value. However, it also cannot considered from the above situation that Jane was going foreign, hence she offered her car to Jack at the current market price, because she has not cited any value for car, then Jack cannot adopt this car for any assumed consideration amount. Since, consideration cannot be any assumed value from offeree, irrespective of the fact that the offeror did not mention any value. In the present case scenario, the offeror has not asked for any consideration price from offeree and thus no enforceable agreement for Jack. It would in fact be referred to as gratuitous promise since Jane has no consideration in the promise made and such promises are non-enforceable. (b) In this situation, Jane the offeror has communicated a consideration amount to sell her Lotus Super 7 Sports car to Jack. This amount of the car is same as the market rate of the car i.e. $25,000 and this value of the car is acceptable by Jack. Hence, all the elements of any enforceable agreement are specified between the offeror and offeree i.e. valid offer, acceptance and consideration. It is not imperative that consideration have a numeric value in return to the offer, it can include any benefit interest, or devolving of rights in exchange of the offer (Harvey, 2009). Consideration for the offeror is expressed in terms of the return favour from the offeree. It is the amount for the offer that the offeree needs to pay to satisfy the offer. The amount of consideration made by the offeror i.e. $25,000 is a valid consideration amount for the car, and easily distinguish in the view of law. Thus, this case satiated all the conditions needed for the contract. Hence, Jack has an enforceable agreement with Jane. (C) In this situation, Jane the offeror has clearly mentioned the consideration amount for the sale of her Lotus Super 7 Sports car to Jack. This amount is legally valid under common law and termed as regulatory value. In the enactment of enforceable agreement, the intent and capacity of the parties are the imperative factors.. The main impact of the enforceable agreement is that both the parties are legally bound with regards to the obligations and rights as per the contract. There is not such importance in the equality of the consideration amount with the market real rate of the offer. This is called the adequacy of consideration (Gibson Fraser, 2014). Hence, the consideration must have some value more or less, is not the question in case of enforceable agreement. This adequacy of the consideration becomes imperative, when any unsuspicious conduct has offered between the parties. It is not essential that the consideration value is same as the specific monetary value. In Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co case, it is necessary that the offeror should accept the consideration and same should be transferred from the offeree (Pendleton Vickery, 2005). The nature of the consideration can be explained with the example of the case Chappell v. Nestle, in which the offeror made the consideration of stipulated things. Even a mere peppercorn or an empty wrapper can also be treated as a valid consideration (Richard, 2003). Additionally, the consideration must be a real value or object and should be feasibly exchanged between the parties. In this case, offeror Jane has made a consideration amount of $2,500 beside the deed that the real rate of the car is $25,000. This stipulated amount has been accepted by Jack. Even though, this consideration amount is much lesser than the real amount of the car, but still a valid consideration is present. Therefore, all the essential conditions are satisfied in this case i.e. valid offer, consideration, and acceptance. Thus, Jack has an enforceable agreement with Jane. 2. Issue To comment on the possibility of success for North Ocean Tankers with regards to claim for $ 3 million recovery based on the applicable legal principles. Law One of the key requirements in the execution of a valid contract is that the parties should provide their free consent to assume the various contractual obligations. At times, when one of the parties do not find requisite consideration to be bound in a contractual relations, the offers by the other party may be turned down. In such cases, it is possible that the offeror may obtain a forced consent through the use of force, a situation which is termed as duress. The use of duress is quite common in bringing modifications to the contract clauses which essentially required consent from both parties and cannot be implemented unilaterally (Harvey, 2009), It is noteworthy that as per the common law, any contracts that are executed with the use of force (whether physical or economic) are voidable if the party subject to threat desires the same (Pathinayake, 2014). This view is derived from the verdict given by the honourable court in the Electrcity Generation Corporation t/as Verve Energy v. Woordside Energy Ltd. [2013] WA SCA 36 case. The court detected the presence of economic duress and thus concluded the voidable nature of the contract. The party subject to threat can claim duress as a valid defence and therefore demand losses from the other party due to the compliance with the unreasonable demands (Taylor Taylor, 2015). However, the scope of claim is limited to only that damage which is caused due to forced consent being given under the influence of threat (physical or economic) (Richard, 2003). Over the period of time, duress has emerged as a strong defence for parties who are forced into contractual relations. This has been especially enabled with the addition of economic threat to the purview of the already existing duress concept. This is significant since unlike the old days when threat were primarily physical and apparent, now the threats are implicit and through the usage of superior economic power so as to gain at the behalf of the interests of the other party. In order to conclusively establish the usage of economic duress, certain aspects need to be established in the court (Gibson Fraser, 2014). There needs to be evidence with regards to the economic power being used in bad faith with the intention of gaining agreement on an unfair term or promise. This threat leads plaintiff into a circumstance which demands that only possible option worth pursuing is acting in agreement with the demand. As the plaintiff provides consent to the term, condition or clause, there i s legal agreement between the parties which prevents the party from dishonouring the commitment given (Davenport Parker, 2014). If the presence of economic duress is established, the plaintiff gets the right to claim damages from the defendant citing duress (Harvey, 2009). However, a critical aspect in this regard is the time within which the plaintiff should file a claim with the court. Ideally, this needs to be carried out as soon as the delivery of the product or the service is done but in case of valid reasons, if it cannot be filed immediately, then the same should be done before the passage of reasonable time. The definitive authority with regards to define the reasonable time is the court which decides this timeframe based on the underlying case facts (Pendleton Vickery, 2005). A leading case in this regard is the North Ocean Shipping v Hyundai Construction (The Atlantic Baron)[1979] QB 705 case. The court agreed to the presence of economic duress based on the case facts and thereby applying the above theory, the claimant should have been successful. However, it was not so as the court indicated that the delay amounting to right months since the tanker delivery is clearly beyond reasonable time in the given case ((Pathinayake, 2014).. Owing to this huge delay, the claimant has indirectly indicated voluntary acceptance to the extra payment and hence cannot now claim it Application The given case facts indicate that a legal enforceable contract has been executed between North Ocean Tankers (Buyer) and a shipbuilder (Seller) with regards to tanker construction. During the building period, the buyer executes a charter for the tanker but there is request for payment of $ 3 million by the shipbuilder. The shipbuilder justified this on account of devaluation in USD but the contract did not had any provision for such a payment. The buyer denied making the payment even though subsequently it complied but only because the seller threatened to stop the work which the buyer could ill afford. The buyer got the tanker delivered on time but made a claim on the $ 3 million payment only after nine months. It is apparent from the case fact that the seller acted in bad faith and used economic power by threatening to not fulfil the contractual obligations. The buyer on account of the charter could not delay the delivery and hence agreed for the payment. It is clear that if it hadnt been for the threat from the seller, the payment of $ 3 million would not have been made by North Ocean Tankers. By agreeing to the demand, they had to make the payment which they did. Hence, economic duress is undoubtedly established but the long delay after delivery seemed unjustified and belong reasonable time. The same would also be indicated by the verdict in the North Ocean Shipping v Hyundai Construction (The Atlantic Baron)[1979] case. Thus, the buyer would not find any success in the recovery of the payment to the tune of $ 3 million as the long delay has made the modified contract legally valid. Conclusion North Ocean Tankers will not be able to recover the payment made to the buyer to the tune of $ 3 million on account of the delay beyond the reasonable time available to claim damages in cases involving duress. References Davenport, S Parker, D 2014, Business and Law in Australia, 2nd eds., LexisNexis Publications, Sydney Gibson, A Fraser, D 2014. Business Law, 8th eds., Pearson Publications, Sydney Harvey, C. 2009, Foundations of Australian law. 3rd eds., Tilde University Press, Prahran, Victoria Pendleton, W Vickery, N 2005. Australian business law: principles and applications, 5th eds., Pearson Publications, Sydney Paterson, J, Robertson, A Duke, A 2015, Principles of Contract Law, 5th eds., Thomson Reuters, Sydney Pathinayake, A 2014, Commercial and Corporations Law, 2nd eds., Thomson-Reuters, Sydney Richard S 2003, The Modern Law of Contract, 5th eds., Cavendish, London Taylor, R Taylor, D 2015, Contract Law, 5th eds., Oxford University Press, London

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Entrepreneurship Difficulties in Business World

Question: Discuss about the Entrepreneurship Difficulties in Business World. Answer: Entrepreneurship Difficulties Entrepreneurship is today not a new word in the business world. With its roots in late 1700s, the modernisation of economic scenarios have given this term a large gamut of interpretations. Like according to the definition given by learned economists, the entrepreneur is somebody who undertakes the organization, managing and assuming the risk of any business. The entrepreneurship is the procedure of learning new methods of relating resources so that the set goals for the business endeavour are met. The success of entrepreneurship is determined when the market value produced by this new arrangement of resources is larger than the individual market value of these resources or the market value they can create in some other arrangement (Sobel, 2001). There are several concepts, theories and impacts of entrepreneurship on the economy and society at large. Here we would attempt to discuss some relevant concepts to understand how the entrepreneurs are driving the changes in both social and economic scenarios, some basic theories related to entrepreneurship, difference between enterprise, innovation and invention and we would discuss and evaluate the role of innovation, invention and intervention in entrepreneurship. We would also delve into the evaluation of the complexity and importance of entrepreneurship in economy and society. The history of concepts of entrepreneurship and their relevance today Historically the concept of entrepreneurship was first recognized in 1700s and since then it has evolved to a great extent. In a lay mans term, it could simply means starting ones own business, however, there are numerous aspects and concepts of entrepreneurship. The word itself has origin in French (Sobel, 2001). In 1723, the word entrepreneur was used to suggest abilities of initiative, leadership and innovation in any original endeavour enterprise. Robert Reich a renowned Economist gave necessary characteristics of entrepreneur as leadership, team-building and management skills (Crainer and Dearlove, 2000). The study done by Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith somewhere in late 17th and early 18th centuries lays foundation of the formal theories of entrepreneurship. The wind of changes brought in by the drive of an entrepreneurs for greater improvement and innovation was studied by Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950), an economist. According to him entrepreneurship was a creative destruction force as the entrepreneur brings on vision new combinations, in this manner aiding reduction of the old industries to absolutely out-of-date. In a way, the conventional methods of undertaking business are demolished by the conception of fresh and enhanced methods. As per Peter Drucker (1909-2005) an expert on business the entrepreneur is a person who constantly and essentially quests for change in the established traditional business ways, responds to it when he finds them and further exploits these change as an opportunity to ensure success of his venture (Doh-Victor, 2015). Some of the elementary characteristics and concepts of entrepreneurship are essentially related to the emergent an idea of whatever an enterprise must be like and then implementing that idea by transforming it into actual phases and taking it to the finish line. The involvement of entrepreneurs in constructing and modelling their businesses is absolute, however, the success of the endeavour is also influenced by accepting the personal limits so that they can be surpassed by evolving systems and strategies. Along with zeal of innovation, quest for making a unique mark for themselves in the society and love for autonomy and freedom, some of the important traits for entrepreneurship includes way of thinking and behaving. They are risk takers, however they prefer to take deliberate and measured risks. Entrepreneurs tend to stake personal reputations, money and time to manifest their visions. They also possess ability to take fiscal responsibility, have a concrete intelligence of how to p romote and manage funds. They are generally creativity people as opening a business is a creative endeavour. What begins with only theorizing of a product or service is creatively build up by entrepreneur into an actual and applied infrastructure with ability to withstand and supply that product or service. Also, they possess sound management skills, with vision and modesty to outline their own part in business processes and right interpersonal skills to effectively delegate other jobs to the people (Gartenstein, no date). The main features of economic and non-economic theories of the role and function of the entrepreneur There are several available theories in the economic and non-economic categories related to the roles played by entrepreneurs in economy as well as society. One of the famous theory is the theory given by Casson (2005), who suggests that though there is no conventional economic theory of the entrepreneur as the traditional economic theory makes numerous assumptions. In order to explain the phenomenon concerning the success or failure of an enterprise a formal theory of the entrepreneur is required. This explains the process of creation and growth of business, growth and development of economy and distribution of income. It is also important to note the role played by the entrepreneurs is noteworthy as generally they bring about changes in the entire industry. The economic theory of the entrepreneur successfully takes into account the rationale of failure as well as success of the endeavour. In the field of theoretical economic dynamics, trade cycles and competitive procedures the the ory of the purpose of the entrepreneur proves to be of utmost importance. Casson (2005) elaborated two modernizations of economic theory. Firstly, that the entrepreneur follows the foundation of the exclusive information accessible to him regarding the different people have varied choices and access to information and secondly, the entrepreneur time and again have to generate market associations as organising markets have their own intrinsic difficulties or transaction costs. Economic theory of entrepreneurship basically congregates functional and symbolic characterizations of the entrepreneur. Also the economic theory of entrepreneurship depicts an entrepreneur as a person with expertise in taking critical resolutions about the management of limited resources. The significant notion for economic theory is management also better understood as dynamic complement of distribution using the instruments of contract and conjecture. Negotiating need to meet to the symmetry, thus the valuation of entrepreneur of current scenarios is vital toward prompting when, where, and how the coordination has to take place. With the help of greater coordination, the uncertainty faced by entrepreneur is somehow reduced by assurance and conjecture. The entrepreneurial coordination is at all times limited as it occupies merely a minor segment of the economy. Though this limited coordination is constant but the total reliability cannot be assured. The economic theory of the entrepreneur is associated to the theory of the market creation enterprise, which is generated by entrepreneur himself. The market internalisation is sorted to reduce the transaction costs which incur in the activities like market-making. The entrepreneur can adopt the utilization of profitable information upon which his greater decisions are founded. The financial prudence of central control, which can be deputized can be accredited to the internalization of the market. Due to their faith in higher knowledge about the market the entrepreneurs assume hard-line bargaining strategies thus affecting the market economy of the product or services they are producing. They often take assistance of their family and friends for labour, capital and information and create new enterprise by successfully recognising the present opportunities. They also trust that self-employment is best way to utilize the given opportunities. Even the market assigns verdict conclusions for the entrepreneurs and act exclusively (Casson, 2005). There are several other economic theories of entrepreneurship are given by Leibenstein, Hayek and Kirzner, Knight, Schumpeter, and Andrews and Penrose. Some of the non-economic theories of entrepreneurship includes the resource-based theories whose emphasis is on the method adopted by entrepreneurs to control diverse kinds of resources to get their commercial labours to succeed. The limited capital makes it difficult for the entrepreneurs to begin their venture with scare resources. The use of social connections and human resources are some other kinds of resources that the entrepreneurs control to gain their objectives. Also the use of their education and information accessible to them helps them to start their enterprise. Also the intangible resources like leadership, business expertise and innovation helps the entrepreneurs. The psychological theories of entrepreneurship emphasis on the people and their mental or emotional features that determine the entrepreneurial efforts they could undertake (Bridge O'Neill, 2012). A renowned psychologist David McCLelland, a professor at Harvard suggest that the entrepreneurs have a necessity for accomplishment that motivates their action. Another professor at the University of Connecticut Julian Rotter, offered that the people with a strong internal locus of control trust that their work can affect the external world and studies advocates that maximum entrepreneurs have this characteristic. Another important non-economic theory of entrepreneurship is the sociological or anthropological theory which focus on the numerous social backgrounds that empower the prospects that are used by the entrepreneurs. A George Washington University professor Paul D. Reynolds, suggests four such backgrounds namely the social links, a longing for a significant life, cultural identification and social-political surrounding influences. The anthropological theory attempts to see entrepreneurship in context of culture. It examines the cultural drives like social outlooks which determine the insight of entrepreneurship and the behaviours of entrepreneurs. The opportunity-based theory given by professor, business management author and corporate consultant, Peter Drucker that entrepreneurs outshine at recognising and utilizing the benefit of opportunities formed by technological, social and cultural changes (Dontigney, no date). The complexity and importance of entrepreneurship in economy and society The researches in the economic aspects of the entrepreneurship gives a precise connection between views of entrepreneurship, economic growth and production undertakings (Baumol, 1990). This importance is primarily because of the assumption that the entrepreneurs are major job creators and contributor to the economic growth. Since this opinion is common among various politicians, economists and substantial fragment of society, that is the reason many countries on national level are encouraging the development of entrepreneurial movements (Wiklund et al., 2011). The researchers also suggest that the establishing of the prominence of formation, improvement and employment of public strategies can encourage the level of entrepreneurial movement in a particular region or country. With regards to the OECD countries (OECD, 1998), which have developing economies and are affected by low production, joblessness and social inequality complications deliberated to use the concepts of entrepreneurs hip to minimize these issues. Historically as well as in the modern world of today, the influence made by various entrepreneurs is remarkable. They have affected not only industry trends and economies but the societies as well. With the prime aim at heart to create a flourishing and wealthy business entrepreneur have created various success stories to be admired like those of Bill Gates, Henry Ford, Mark Zuckerberg, etc. They not only managed to make public wealth and personal fortune but also aided the entire society to grow and advance with their inventive products. The endeavours of this undertaking effect in bonuses for the entire society, even while these might not be the initial part of entrepreneurs goals. For example, the entrepreneurial ensure of Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook has not only made him successful but have also created value for the society by bringing people together across the globe. People in general benefit from superior goods and services while the venture capit alists, shareholders, and lenders gains profit by achieving interests and returns on investments by the success of the entrepreneurs venture. Generation of employment helps society at large by reducing unemployment, helping employees attain means of earning income and achieving personal goals along with the growth and success of the business. This intron increases the purchasing powers among the people and increases potential customer base for the products and services of the business of the entrepreneurs. Since the entrepreneurship has a very dynamic nature, after achieving its initial goals entrepreneurs tends to search for new goals to achieve and improve the society at large (Carraher, 2014). Thus the connection between societal advancement and increase in entrepreneurship are highly correlated. The operations of the entrepreneurial ventures are part of todays society and both have a complementary and supportive influence on each other. Therefore, as both perceptions of entrepre neurship and society are dynamic in nature, along with evolving changes in the society the part played by the entrepreneurship also alterations with it (Shahidi, 2008). Conclusion While studying about the evolution and various theories about the entrepreneurship, it is very much evident that like every aspect of business, entrepreneurship is also dynamic and progressively changing. There has been significant increase in various initiatives taken by many countries in recent times regarding promoting entrepreneurship in their quest to increase employment, decrease imports, strengthen their economies and create value addition for society at large. In terms of innovation we could say that it is basically consequence of the combination of an inventive procedure and an entrepreneurial procedure with an aim to make a new economic worth for definite participants. As it is said Innovation = Invention + Implementation, it possesses an inherent duality. Innovation is possible when there is actual implementation of the novel ideas. Thus though innovation is a single word but contains two separate procedures. First invention, involving combinations of knowledge and creativity, and second the entrepreneurship, which in turn is a combination of three main activities, namely evaluation of opportunity, psychological commitment and execution organization (Hindle, 2009). Thus it can be said that entrepreneurship is not an act in isolation but have far more consequences then initially perceived even by the entrepreneur himself. The dynamic nature of this form of business is characterised by its influence on the society, economy as well as the market trends. The entrepreneurship could be difficult to manage because there could be number of stakeholders involved. A true entrepreneur is a true leader who can actually address the expectations of different stakeholders (Bridge O'Neill, 2012). Therefore, it is important that the entrepreneur should have the vision to achieve the desired goals and objectives. It is also important that this vision should be shared with various important stakeholders. References Baumol, W.J. (1990) Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive, Journal of Political Economy, 98(5, Part 1), pp. 893921. doi: 10.1086/261712. Bridge, S. and O'Neill, K., 2012.Understanding enterprise: entrepreneurship and small business. Palgrave Macmillan. Carraher, S. (2014) Leadership, entrepreneurship, and suggestions for future research, Journal of Management History, 20(1). doi: 10.1108/jmh-08-2013-0038. Casson, M. (2005) The entrepreneur: An economic theory. 2nd edn. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. Crainer, S. and Dearlove, D. (2000) Generation entrepreneur: Shape todays business reality, create tomorrows wealth, do your own thing. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Doh-Victor, G. (2015) The concept of entrepreneurship. Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/concept-entrepreneurship-godwin-doh-victor (Accessed: 9 August 2016). Dontigney, E. (no date) What are the theories of entrepreneurship? Available at: https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/theories-entrepreneurship-23795.html (Accessed: 9 August 2016). Gartenstein, D. (no date) What are the basic concepts characteristics of entrepreneurship? Available at: https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/basic-concepts-characteristics-entrepreneurship-3804.html (Accessed: 9 August 2016). Hindle, K. (2009) The relationship between innovation and entrepreneurship: Easy definition, hard policy. Available at: https://kevinhindle.com/publications/J4.2009-AGSE-Hindle-Inn-Ent-Pol.pdf (Accessed: 9 August 2016). OECD (1998) OECD Observer, 1998(1). doi: 10.1787/observer-v1998-1-en. Shahidi, M. (2008) The challenges of entrepreneurship in dynamic society, Central Asia Business, 1(1), pp. 3445. Sobel, R.S. (2001) Entrepreneurship. Available at: https://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Entrepreneurship.html (Accessed: 8 August 2016). Wiklund, J., Davidsson, P., Audretsch, D.B. and Karlsson, C. (2011) The future of entrepreneurship research, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), pp. 19. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00420.x.