Wednesday, July 31, 2019
I. Cathy Ames Ã¢â¬â CathyÃ¢â¬â¢s main motivation was her desperate and incessant need for money. This held true throughout most of the book; it was only at the very end of her life that she realized that she had been missing something her entire life. This is the reason she left everything that she had amassed to her youngest son, Aron. This act may have been a desperate attempt at making up for the love she was never privileged enough to have. Cathy viewed herself as someone who could outwit most anyone she met Ã¢â¬â especially men. There were a few of those who she feared because she felt like their eyes could see into every one of her thoughts and emotions. Samuel Hamilton was one of these people, and so she despised him. Whatever happened in Cathy at the end was responsible for her change in disposition. Her sudden Ã¢â¬Å"goodnessÃ¢â¬ (if it can be called that) impelled her to leave everything she owned to Aron, her Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ son, and nothing to Cal, whom she felt was most like her in his devious personality and sinful motivation (from what she gathered of the few times they met). Cathy saw nothing good or honest in any part of humanity. Even the men who she served disgusted her. She surrounded herself with the slime of civilization, and was blinded to everyone and everything else. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that Cathy ever truly liked anybody but herself, and in the end the fact that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even like herself frankly scared her. All of her past misdeeds finally came back to haunt her. After swallowing her Ã¢â¬Å"Drink Me,Ã¢â¬ she finally ceased to be, and in her mind, never was; and that was the way she wanted it. Samuel Hamilton Ã¢â¬â Samuel Hamilton was a family man. He valued spending time with his family and found that even more important than making money. Even though he always complained about his extremely unprofitable and barren ranch, he made a lifetime of happy memories there and found it very hard to leave when he and Lisa moved to Salinas. Samuel had a persistency about him. Nothing could ever wear him down, except of course, old age in the end. But no matter the number of failed inventions or patents that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work out, he was always working on another one of his ideas. Samuel was loved throughout the entire county; everybody was his friend. He had one of those insightful and humorous personalities that everybody liked. Samuel loved life and ached for what each new day would bring. Although not as devout as Lisa in her views about religion and what is sinful, Samuel was a good, moral person who enjoyed life very much. Samuel saw himself as nothing more than any other man he had ever met. He was constantly giving and doing his part to improve society as a whole. He cared for nearly everyone and everything. For his children, Samuel wanted nothing but success and greatness, but at the same time he wondered if it were a selfish and sinful thing to want greatness for his children, knowing that it would be a hard and lonely path. Perhaps this is the reason Samuel himself was so content with his own financial status. He was never alone, and always had the pleasure of family near. Samuel Hamilton died a rich man Ã¢â¬â surrounded by friends and family. Caleb Trask Ã¢â¬â Cal wanted desperately to be liked and loved the way Aron was. He loved his brother, but at the same time envied him to no end. It was his jealousy that drove Cal to do the mean things he did to his brother, but these cruel tactics were no relief from his inner strife. Afterward, Cal always beat himself up emotionally for wanting to hurt his brother. Cal was very smart and clever (like his mother I suppose) and emotionally strong, but he longed to be loved, especially by his father, Adam. Cal was once desperate enough to try to Ã¢â¬Å"buyÃ¢â¬ his fathers love (as Will Hamilton had asked quite frankly) with $15,000. After Cal found out the truth about Cathy, what she had done to his father, and that she made a living as a whore, he felt like it was his responsibility to help protect Adam. His whole life, Cal never felt that Adam liked him very much, the way he loved Aron. It was when Cal saw his mother up close that he realized why his father loved Aron so much more than him; Aron looked like Cathy, whom Cal knew Adam still hopelessly loved. Cal always referred to himself as being Ã¢â¬Å"bad,Ã¢â¬ by thinking bad thoughts and doing bad things. He also always confided in Lee that he longed to be good, like Aron. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all he wanted. But, unfortunately, he despised himself. He hated himself so much that Lee suspected he enjoyed wallowing in his self-pity. It was his only protection from the outside world; a world that Cal was sure would reject him for his brother, Aron. Aron Trask Ã¢â¬â Aron was steadfast in his morality and was disgusted by the filth of society, very much like his mother. But unlike Cathy, Aron would not have surrounded himself with anyone or anything against his beliefs. AronÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, Cal could be described as AronÃ¢â¬â¢s opposite. He was so much stronger than Aron in every way except maybe physically. Cal accepted things as they were, and suffered through them, as awful as the circumstances may have been. On the other hand, Aron, as Abra suggested, tore up reality for his own picture of how the world should be, and if that picture should become impure, his whole world would come crashing down around him. In the beginning, Aron lived for the goodness in life, and so, naturally, he built his mother (whom he had never known) to be the most beautiful, kind, pure woman in the world. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think his vision ever left him given his reaction when he discovered the truth. In the second half of his life, Aron was driven by his love for Abra. But it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really Abra that he loved. It was a completely pure and moral being wearing AbraÃ¢â¬â¢s skin and beauty. Nevertheless, it was this vision of Abra that got him through all of his hard times at school, and what he lived for at home. After Adam rejected Cal at Thanksgiving, Cal took his anger and frustration out on his brother in the cruelest way he could imagine. Cal showed Cathy to Aron and he learned the truth; his mother was a whore, the most undignified thing a woman was capable of being. AronÃ¢â¬â¢s picture of life was altered dramatically, and he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t handle it. He had viewed himself as good and clean and moral. His life was destroyed in his mind and he would always feel impure and dirty. Aron enlisted in the Army and ultimately got himself killed. Lee Ã¢â¬â Lee was a very wise intellectual. What motivated Lee through life was unclear. It had to have been his dreams that he often talked about and longed to accomplish. But what about after he had no dreams left? He had even said that after trying out life in his San Francisco bookstore that he had no more dreams left. From then on, LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s main motivation must have been his love for the Trask family. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious that he loved the boys very much and felt as though the Trasks were part of his own family. Lee was very smart and clever. He valued the goodness in man, and found ignorance annoying, but very plentiful in society. He always craved a good debate or intelligent conversation. He always liked talking with Samuel Hamilton because he could provide this. Their long talks about the story of Cain and Abel excited Lee, because they always left him pondering, and wanting more. It was obvious that Lee enjoyed learning, and examining complex situations very much. Throughout all of East of Eden, it was Lee that offered the best advice; perhaps because he dissected each situation thoroughly enough to see what needed to be done. Lee also accepted whatever life threw his way, but dealt with it intelligently and the best way he knew how. Lee was well liked, for a Ã¢â¬Å"chink.Ã¢â¬ He respected those that gave him respect. By the end of the book, he had grown very attached to Abra, who spent a lot of her time at the Trask place talking to Lee. In the very end, I think it was his need to see Cal and Aron (who eventually died) succeed in their own ways. This is why he stuck up for Cal to Adam on his deathbed; and, of course, AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s answer, Ã¢â¬Å"Timshel,Ã¢â¬ was the finest answer he could have given. Charles Trask Ã¢â¬â Charles felt as though he was second best to his brother, Adam his entire life. He always felt that it was Adam who Cyrus, their father, loved more. I suppose Charles is a lot like Caleb Trask in that way. Charles had an abusive and violent temper when he was a teen, and at one time even tried to kill Adam. Charles loved his father, and just wanted his respect, but Cyrus moved away after sending Adam into the Army. And so, Charles was left alone on his farm to make his own living. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think Charles was ever happy with his life. He was always depressed because of his loneliness whenever Adam was away, and they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get along for any length of time when they were together. He refused to sell the ranch whenever Adam suggested it, because it would be a waste in his mind. Charles was stubborn and insisted on spending no money on himself and was determined to stay where he was. Charles probably felt inferior to his brother, because of their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s favoritism toward Adam, but Charles always knew he could win in a fistfight. Charles intimidated most of the people in town because of his size and strength. In that way, I suppose, he probably felt superior to everyone else, especially after Cyrus, his father died and left him and Adam a sum of more than $93,000 to split. After Adam left with his share, Charles was the wealthiest farmer in the area and the most respected. Charles knew how to do one thing well: farm. He lived for farming, and he did it until the day he died. He made a considerable amount of money in his lifetime too, but never got around to enjoying it. Charles was a loner. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any close friends, and as far as we know was only married for a short time while Adam was in the Army. Other than that he was a homebody, and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t socialize much (except for his late night excursions to the local inn). He died never seeing any other part of the country, never living in any other house, never doing anything other than that which he had been doing his entire life. And while it never made him happy, it seemed to be enough for him. Adam Trask Ã¢â¬â Adam was mistreated throughout most of his childhood by his father and brother. All Adam wanted was to be happy, in his own way. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to live under the pressure of his father, always competing with his brother. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go into the Army, and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go back to the farm in Connecticut. I think Adam lived for the happiness that the next day would bring, not knowing what it would be, or from where it would come. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how he got through the first half of his life, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how he came upon Cathy and how the second half began. Adam lived for Cathy Ames and would have done anything for her. Like Steinbeck described, his first year with Cathy was the first time Adam really felt alive. She was his world. When she left, not even the twin boys she left behind were enough to keep Adam going. And so, he fell into a deep depression, melancholy for nearly eleven years. Secretly, during that time, I think he believed that Cathy would see the error of her ways and come back to him. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think he ever really accepted her leaving him. Nevertheless, he was the father of two boys, and eventually came around to caring for their best interests. He moved them to Salinas and enrolled them in school. He was open to the idea of Aron even going to college, which he finally did. Adam always seemed a little scatterbrained; he was always prone to getting into situations a little over his head. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t very sensible in some of his endeavors (the nice farm he bought, but never capitalized on, the marriage that was doomed to begin with, the lettuce that never made it across the country), but he was as honest as a man could be. He was very friendly and was open to anyone and everyone being his friend if they so wished. He became popular in Salinas (except for the incident with the lettuce) very quickly. Adam didnÃ¢â¬â¢t read people very well though. He understood his own emotions, but when it came time to be responsible for his sons, he had a hard time; it was Lee that actually raised Cal and Aron for the first decade of their lives. Adam never pitied himself; he simply resigned himself to the fact that he was raised by a father he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t love, a woman he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know, and a violent brother whom he feared. But Adam grew to be a fine man, and at the end, a good father; one his children could respect. Abra Ã¢â¬â Abra was an average teen girl who viewed life, in the beginning when we were first introduced to her, as a game. She wanted so much to be an adult, and to raise a family. She pretended to be AronÃ¢â¬â¢s mother to him more than once in the story, as an example of her longing to raise a child. Abra fell in love with Aron at a very young age and stuck to her first love for most of her teen years. She wanted nothing but to raise a small family with the man with whom she was in love. But as the situation became more complicated between her and Aron, their relationship suffered, possibly without his complete understanding. When Aron finally left for Stanford, after deciding to become a priest, Abra ended up spending a lot of time at the Trask house, and finding herself getting very close to Lee and Adam, more so than her own parents. It was during this time, with Aron gone, that she discovered that she really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t love Aron any more. Aron had transformed her (or wanted to anyway) into something she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t and never could be. While she realized this, her confusion about her conflicting feelings (for she still liked Aron, and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t 100% certain what she wanted) wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow her to break up with him. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until after Aron enlisted in the Army that she was sure she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be with him. Abra was a smart girl, who enjoyed many talks with her new friend Lee. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel that she was somehow better than anyone, but at the same time, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel any lower than anyone either. She fit in nicely with society, but was much brighter and wiser than most. Eventually she got together with Caleb, and I believe that those two together would have ended up very happy. Cal wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have expected Abra to be anything more than what she was, and could be happy with that. Abra saw Cal as a flawed individual, and found him to be very much like herself (she even compared their parents faults), especially after the close scrutiny she was under whenever Aron was around. II. SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s central message in the book is the seemingly endless struggle between good and evil in all of us, and the fated consequences of the choices we make. Those who felt the evil inside themselves felt that their fates were predestined and unavoidable (especially Cal who knew of his mother and could feel her blood flowing through his veins). This reveals the importance of Ã¢â¬Å"TimshelÃ¢â¬ in the end of the book to Caleb as he gets a chance at redemption by being able to choose his own fate. Caleb had the gift (or enlightenment) of Ã¢â¬Å"TimshelÃ¢â¬ bestowed upon him by his father. Ã¢â¬Å"TimshelÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"thou mayestÃ¢â¬ was the key to freeing Caleb from his self-torture and releasing him from what he felt was a fated path to hell. Because of Ã¢â¬Å"Timshel,Ã¢â¬ Cal had a chance to make up for what he had done wrong because he knew that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t evil, and he knew he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be evil, and with this inspiration he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be evil. III. As a theme I see the basic story of Cain and Abel reinvent itself within the Trask family generation after generation. It was interesting because all the characters whose name began with the letter Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ represented the good and benevolent son to Adam and Eve that is Abel. Examples of these are Adam, Aron, and Abra. And likewise, the characters whose name began with the letter Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ represented AbelÃ¢â¬â¢s jealous and flawed brother, Cain. These examples include Charles, Cathy, and Caleb. Charles had become jealous at the fact that his father got more pleasure out of AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s gift than out of his own, and in a rage, tried to kill his brother. This was the first story line that followed that of Cain and Abel. The second would come later when Cal was rejected by Adam on thanksgiving and betrayed his brother in a way that ultimately got Aron killed. This was the second story line that followed that of Cain and Abel. As a sub-message in the book I saw that it was the dishonorably acquired money that indirectly brought about the downfall of all of characters, hinting at the evils of destruction for which money is responsible. The specific examples that came to mind were Cyrus, who stole from the GAR; Charles, who began his fortune of the stolen money that his father left him; Cathy, who had amassed her fortune whoring; and Aron who was left the money Cathy made. Caleb came near destruction, but he found that burning the money his father had refused helped relieve him from his self-pity and a likely demise. The only character who seemed untouched by the evils that came with the dollar was Adam. Adam squandered a lot of the money his father left him on an idea of his. This bad investment left him not rich any more. His money never had the chance to destroy him because he never found it valuable enough to cherish. In turning his son down on the money that was offered to him, Adam in a sense freed himself from the evils that came along with it. Likewise, Samuel and Lisa Hamilton lived very long and happy lives not having a dime to their name. IV. There are many ideas and images that I see repeated throughout the book. As a list see the presence of the evil that money represents; the story of Cain and Abel reinventing itself through each of the generations of the Trask family; the cruelties perpetrated by characters whose names begin with C (Charles, Cathy, and Caleb) to the characters whose names begin with A (Adam, Aron, and Abra); the honest confusion and moralistic uncertainty of all of the characters whose names begin with the letter A; war that always negatively affects the lives of everyone; the good ideas that always came to Sam Hamilton and Adam Trask (but mostly Sam) that never turned out to be lucrative endeavors; the similar scars that Charles and Cathy shared that seemed to mark them as the devious people they were and condemn them to fall to their sins and evil doings. V. Ã¢â¬Å"Timshel,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"thou mayestÃ¢â¬ in hebrew changed the outcome of, and possibly ended, the repeating Cain and Abel retellings. In the versions of the Bible that everyone in East of Eden had ever known, the story of Cain and Abel included a decree by God ordering Cain to overcome sin, while in another version, God promised that Cain would overcome sin. Both of these versions seemed to condemn sinners to their misdeeds without hope of redemption. However, Lee discovered that in the original hebrew text, the significant word in the conflicting sentence was actually Ã¢â¬Å"timshel,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"thou mayest.Ã¢â¬ This, of course, would allow each individual to be in charge of his own moral destiny. It was Cal who mainly feared that the sins of his mother would come back to condemn him because he reasoned that the same blood flowed through his veins, but Ã¢â¬Å"timshelÃ¢â¬ would relieve this. The significant character blessed with this enlightenment was Cal. After Cal learned that Aron was dead, and knowing that it was his fault, he goes to his father where Lee speaks for him. Lee asks Adam to forgive his son and to free him from his sins. AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s response, Ã¢â¬Å"timshel,Ã¢â¬ symbolically freed Caleb as he was now free and in charge of his own destiny without having his past sins, or the sins of his parents holding him back. VI. Beginning with my dislikes, I disliked the chapters that seemed to slant away from the rest of the story; the chapters of Olive Hamilton especially. These chapters seemed to have no effect on the Hamiltons or the Trasks. I found them pointless, but I also may have missed an underlying reason for their place in the book. Regardless, I liked the book very much. I thought it was well-written and very well thought out. The action parts were the best, but it moved at an understandably slow pace to reveal every significant thing that happened, but moved fast enough to keep me, the reader, entertained. It shocks me how much research Steinbeck must have had to do simply to develop the concept for East of Eden, but I think his time was well spent. And it was obviously worth it, for now, almost 50 years later, it is still widely read. I thoroughly enjoyed the story.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Constance Baker Motley was born on September 14, 1921, in New Haven, Connecticut. She was the ninth of twelve children born to parents, whom emigrated from the island of Nevis in the West Indies. Her mother was Rachel Baker and she was a founder of the New Haven NAACP. Her father was Willoughby Alva Baker and he was a chef for student organizations at Yale University. At the age of fifteen, Constance joined the local NAACP were she was denied admission to a local skating rink and public beach. This is what sparked her interest in law and helped her pioneering career as a civil rights lawyer, lawmaker and judge (which spanned six decades) and was highlighted by numerous historic achievements, including the first African American elected to the New York Senate, the first black woman to hold the position of Manhattan Borough President, and the first African American woman appointed to serve as a federal district judge. Constance attended New Haven's integrated public schools. By the age of 15, she decided that she wanted to be a lawyer because of all the active reading she was doing. She also attended Fisk University and then transferred to New York University, were she received a bachelor's degree in economics. She was accepted at Columbia University Law School in 1944 and she went and graduated in 1946. In 1945, she became the law clerk for Thurgood Marshall, then became the chief counsel of the NAACP'S Legal Defense and their educational fund. Over the next 20 years, she did some hard work on some of the United States' civil rights cases, including preparing the draft complaint in 1950, for what would later become Brown v. Board of Education. In the early 1960's, Motley successfully argued for one thousand schoolchildren, who were expelled for demonstrating. She also represented a group called the Ã¢â¬Å"Freedom Fighters,Ã¢â¬ who rode interstate buses to test desegregation laws. From 1961 to 1964, Motley won nine of ten civil rights cases because she argued with the Supreme Court decision on every case. In the late 1960's, Motley became interested in politics and by 1964, she had left the NAACP to become the first black woman to serve on the New York State Senate. In 1965, she became the first woman president of the Borough of Manhattan. She worked to decrease racial segregation in schools. In particular, she directed the campaign that resulted in James H. Meredith admission to the University of Mississippi. Later in 1966, President Johnson nominated Motley to the federal bench in Manhattan. Over the next 40 years. Motley handled civil rights cases such as, when she made the decision in 1978 allowing a girl to change in the New York Yankees' locker room. During this time she was a big success to Dr. Martin Luther King and all the other civil rights activists. Her and King fought together so that the nation would be equal among citizens and there would not be anymore segregation. In 1982, Motley became the first female chief judge. Her style could be deceptive, often challenging a witness to get away with one lie after another. Judge Motley won cases that ended segregation in Memphis restaurants and white-only lunch counters in Birmingham, Alabama. Judge Constance Baker Motley was a tall, gracious and stately woman whose main goal was sometimes elusive: dignity for all people. Her personal approach was also dignified. As a black woman practicing law in the South, she endured gawking and more than a few physical threats. But through those trials and tribulations, she still remained positive and influenced others to do the same. Constance Baker Motley was a very famous person to remember. She did a lot of things to help young individuals. This lady changed society because she was the first to serve in high ranking categories, which gave the African American race a chance to follow in her footsteps or even go beyond that. Constance Baker Motley died of congestive heart failure on September 28, 2005, at the age of eighty-four years old. Although she had assumed senior status as a judge in 1986, handling a reduce caseload, she continued to work until her death. She was survived by her husband, Joel Wilson Motley, whom she married in 1949, and she had one son Joel Motley and several siblings. Constance Baker Motley played a vital role in today's society because there are many people that will not be active in civil rights and the well-being of themselves and others. She will always be remembered of as one of the greatest women of lifetime history because she was positively influenced, which made her work be positive. This is a true role-model for people all across America to want to do something similar to what this woman did for the African American race.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Medical Malpractices Lawsuits and Their Changing Nature - Essay Example D. The fourth step is establishing the causation in the medical malpractice suit. E. Finally, there is passing of judgment and the sentence based on evidence adduced. III. Discussions on the changing nature of medical malpractice suits influenced by the lack of national standards and federal government laws and statutes while using several examples in various states IV. The rising costs of damages in medical malpractice that underlines the need for further reform in medical malpractice laws. V. Conclusion and further suggestions for reforms in medical malpractice law Medical Malpractices and Their Changing Nature The law on medical malpractices and insurance has been under scrutiny and focus for many years across the United States and over the world. In recent years, Washington is realizing the need to support legislation meant to put a cap on the amount of litigation while restricting the amount of awards on damages resulting from medical malpractice suits. ... On the other hand, there are those who belief that the blame squarely lies on the insurance market for medical malpractice. This expose elucidates on the issues central to medical malpractice suits and their changing nature. Therefore, the expose begins by giving an overview on the operations of medical malpractices law and the procedure towards the awarding of damages in a medical malpractice lawsuit. After an analysis of medical malpractice law and lawsuits, the expose gives an investigation of the changing nature of medical malpractice law. Thereafter, there is an in-depth investigation of the cost factor in damages awarded to patients harmed by medical practitioners while finally the paper proposes further reforms in the tort law on medical malpractice in the concluding part of the expose. Medical Malpractice Law and Suits The jurisdiction of medical malpractice laws in the country is traditionally the preserve of state governments and not under the federal government. In this re gard, the legal rules and the operational framework that guided medical malpractices were precedents from states courts instead federal laws and statutes. Thus, medical malpractice laws were common laws since they were legal rules established by the state courts. In this effect, since the laws set in judgment and settlement from a state has no weight in another state, the laws and framework for handling medical malpractices varied, and still does to some extent today, from one state to the other state regardless of similar principles. Speiser points out that, the law on medical malpractice has its origin from English common law of the nineteenth century. However, the law that developed to medical malpractice law is an
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Fundamentals of Natural Science - Essay Example Earlier, it was noted that scientific studies made the presence of gene and their transmission from one generation to another. But with the increased progress of scientific research allowed understanding regarding the mechanism in which genes would work (Bunch & Hellemans, 2004). The process of scientific research to renew the facts about mechanism of operation of gene in the body was greatly debated. Initially, researchers believed that it was impossible to find the particles and molecules making up several arrangements. Later on, it was observed that scientists made use of three-dimensional structure of DNA to evaluate the biochemical functioning (Treichel, 2008). By 1930s, scientists found out the correlation between the chromosomes and linkage of different molecules which ultimately led in the development of scientific study noting the mechanism in which genes work. This progress in the scientific study led in the correct knowledge of cytological information. During the experimentation for evaluating mechanism of genes, it was observed that new born babies had dominating features from the families of their parents. This made it evident that the mechanism of genes was greatly controlled by some other component of gene. It was for this reason that Walter Flemming studied the addition of another component in genes. Walter discovered that every cell had a nuclein which was also controlling the cell nucleus. But even then the relationship between both the components was not established with practical experimentation (Bunch & Hellemans, 2004). In order to understand as to why babies had exactly the same features as family side including eye color and other facial features, Oscar Hertwig conducted experimentation. It was noted in his experiment of observing sea urchins. The reason behind his consideration of sea urchins as the best experimental subject because its eggs are relatively bigger in size and are
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Toyota Origins - Term Paper Example (Piotrowski & Guyette, 2010, p.89) It was Mr. Toyoda Sakichi, who provided the original impetus to the young company. This entrepreneur and inventor par excellence translated some of the creative ideas he employed in the textile industry to the fledgling automobile industry. Under the mentorship of Toyoda Sakichi, his son Toyoda Kiichiro applied the proven methods of efficiency from the textile looms to automobile manufacturing. In mid-twentieth century, Ford and General Motors had a significant market share of the Japanese car industry, and competing with them was near impossible. Yet, based on the visionary aspiration of the deceased Toyoda Sakichi, his son took upon the challenge of competing with the bigger firms. Apart from the founderÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, some practical necessities in the form of Japanese military missions also facilitated the growth of Toyota Motor Corporation in its early days. And then when the legendary Ohno Taiichi joined the company after the Second World War , his incisive engineering inputs helped transform the company into a reputable global player. (Price, 1997, p.14) In 2001, Toyota issued a document titled Toyota Way 2001, which highlights some of the core principles and values espoused by the management and the workforce. Some of these principles also serve as strategically important in distinguishing Toyota from other companies. For example, principles such as Respect for People, Continuous Improvement, etc are inculcated into the workforce right during times of prosperity and distress. The automotive market in the world is said to be highly competitive and volatile. Moreover, demand in this market is affected by a number of factors such as social, political and general economic conditions; launch of new vehicles and technologies; and expenses incurred by customers to buy and operate vehicles. These factors can make consumer demand to vary substantially from one year to another across market geographies and for different types of automobiles. Yet, in spite of such uncertainties and still competition, a recent annual report of Toyota shows Ã¢â¬Å"increasing unit sales from 2006 to 2008, based on the total unit sales of its products all over the world. But, based on the unit sales per geographic segment, there was a decline in theÃ Toyota unit sales in Japan, from 2,364,000 units in 2006 down to 2,188,000 units in 2008. Despite the decline in the unit sales ofÃ ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s products in Japan,Ã ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s market share (including Daihatsu and Hino) including min-vehicles, andÃ Toyota and Lexus' market share excluding mini vehicles, remained at a high level close to prior fiscal year reflecting the sales efforts of domestic dealers (CortezÃ & Penacerrada, 2010, p.113). One of the key driving forces behind the continued success of Toyota is its embrace of Lean Manufacturing and Just-In-Time Production techniques. Then there is the overarching set of philosophies and values brought under the ter m the Toyota Way. The Toyota Way can be further broken down into 4 components. First is a long-term approach to management decision making; second is a systematic approach to problem-solving; third is value addition to the company; and fourth is to focus on solving persistent problems facing the company. These principles and procedures add up to form the formidable
Determine the water resources in your hometown area (Canton, Ohio - Stark County) - Assignment Example In the end a unified approach will be adapted, incorporating all the perspectives, to address the issue of conservation of water. According to the US 2009 census, the estimated population of Canton-Massillon, Ohio Metropolitan statistical area is 408, 005 (US Census Bureau, 2009). Most of the urban population depends upon ground water for consumption and daily usage purposes. The area receives its water supply through 3 different ecological mechanisms, all of which are interconnected through a complex hydrologic and infiltration cycle. The major sources of water supply are: (1) Precipitation (2) Surface water resources (3) Ground water resources. We will briefly explain each one of them with particularly greater emphasis upon ground water resources and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the primary source of water supply to the area. The graphical illustration below reveals that on average 3.5 to 3.7 inches precipitation falls every month on Stark country. However, considering the fact that seasonal changes and yearly extremes severely affect the precipitation rate, the following data may not be reliable while analyzing long term precipitation rate. Data revealed by Ã¢â¬Å"Ohio state university extension fact sheetÃ¢â¬ demonstrates that, all the minor rivers, streams and lakes eventually drain into Ohio River near Beaver, Pennsylvania and Ohio River at Marietta (in Washington County). Furthermore, the infiltration capacity of soil also plays a significant role as it determines the amount of rainfall water to be trapped on the surface or infiltrate into the soil. As mentioned earlier, the availability of ground water is dependent upon the chemical and physical properties of geologic formation. For a better understanding of ground water resources, the nature of aquifers should be analyzed in detail. As the following figure Ã¢â¬Å"Ground water resource mapÃ¢â¬
Friday, July 26, 2019
Causes and Effects of Tattoos - Essay Example It is characterized to be Tahitian, tatau, meaning an indelible figure fixed upon the body especially by the insertion of pigment under the skin (Merriam Webster Dictionary 732). However, these signs which used to be mere adaptation and camouflaged have advanced into many different uses dependent upon the enthusiast or fanatic. Aficionados vary in attitude, age, lifestyle or standard of living and interest, much as are the designs, motifs, consequence and significance. Nonetheless, the acquisition of infectious diseases corollary to motivations and driving forces is blameworthy. Whether healthy or unhealthy, in fad or mainstream, an aesthetic or natural, religious or secular, figurative or literal tattoo has its doable side. It is a mechanism of driving in some colorant using sharp edge instrument down to the dermal layer of the body's first line of defence. The human skin as an organ protects the underlying parts from physical trauma, pathogen invasion, and water loss (Mader 730). Infringing through the homogeneous epidermal sub layers: 1-a) twenty to thirty tiers of keratinized squamous epithelial cells making up the cornified outermost level, the stratum corneum; and 1-b) basal cuboidal cells, highly mitotic cells producing replacement epidermal cells for sloughed keratinized portion; and the dermis, the inner stratum of : a) connective tissues consisting of collagen, reticular and elastic fibres, blood vessels, nerves, pigment cells, adipocytes and fibroblast; b) sebaceous and sweat glands; c) hair follicles; and d) the papillary layer (Ayque 42-43) wou ld naturally wind up to its malfunction. In the dermis too are small receptors for pressure, touch, temperature and pain (Mader 731). Immunity, the ability of the body to defend itself and as non-specific defences consist of barriers to entry, inflammatory reaction, natural killer cells and protective protein. Any minor injury resulting from broken skin would result to redness, swelling, and pain. This would mean destruction to the epidermis, the underlying connective tissues and mast cells (Mader 762). It is the creation of an avenue for microbial invasion. Although the human body has its natural flora of microorganisms called indigenous microflora (Burton and Paul Engelkirk 5), opportunistic pathogens may cause a dilemma. A case in point is the intrusion of Escherichia coli. It is a species of coliform bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, normally present in the intestines and common in water, milk, and soil. E. coli is the most frequent cause of urinary tract infection and is serious gram-negative pathogen in wounds. E. coli septicemia may rapidly result in shock and death through the action of an endotoxin released from the bacteria (Mosby's Pocket Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health 458). It may gain access into the bloodstream passing through lesion causing septicemia (Burton and Paul Engelkirk 488). It is typified by fever, chill, hypotension, pain, headache, nausea, or diarrhea (Mosby's Pocket Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health 1155-1156). Other opportunistic pathogens as human indigenous microflora are Staphylococcus aureus and Enteroccocus spp (Burton and Engelkirk 260). Staphylococcal infection of the skin includes carbuncles, folliculitis, furuncles, and hindradenitis supurativa. Bacteremia, the presence of bacteria in the blood is common and may result in
Thursday, July 25, 2019
The scope and application of jus cogens - Dissertation Example It is the objective of jus cogens and erga omnes to promote and preserve the common interests of nations to a much greater extent than the international law. These tenets constitute constitutional rules that describe the basic features of the international legal system. They are also quite influential in determining the manner, in which international law is developed, preserved and modified. In addition, these rules protect civil liberties and human rights that are central to the individuality of the international legal system. A norm is regarded as jus cogens upon being accepted by the countries of the world, in their entirety. However, this does not require unanimous acceptance. Importantly, a few subjects of international law, acting in isolation or in association with other subjects, do not result in jus cogens; nor can they veto a decision of the majority of nations. This research work proves that the principle of jus cogens is procedurally ineffective with respect to the international norms prohibiting torture. The best way to address this issue is for the ICJ to become more proactive and clarify, via its rulings, the inherent ambiguity. In addition, a convention should be framed that implements the peremptory norms in a consistent manner. Jus Cogens Introduction Jus cogens or peremptory norms are uniquely situated in the hierarchy of international law. These norms have a binding effect upon every nation, which is a major difference between them and conventional treaty and international laws. In addition, this binding effect is independent of the willingness of a nation to be bound by these norms.1 As such, Jus cogens can be regarded as a body of rules, when certain fundamental universal principles that have a binding effect upon all the States are created. In addition, these rules should prove to be crucially important for the entire international community. As there is no established international legislative power, implementing competent international peremptory norms has its own peculia r necessity.2 Article 53 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, enabled State Parties to implement the concept of jus cogens in positive international law; initiating the utilisation of this notion. Specifically, jus cogens safeguards overriding interests and values of the comity of nations, and averts their deterioration and selective modification. 3 Jus cogens, in the contemporary milieu, finds general acceptance by State practice, as a rule of the traditional international law. This research work comprises of five sections. The first of these relates to the historical development of jus cogens. The second section describes the methods for identifying
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Business Ethics In Financial Institutions - Essay Example There is also damage to the business, as well as the employees and consumers who rely on that organization for their livelihood (Fisman & Miguel, 2008). Business ethics have become part of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation. Presently, managers are now well-prepared to deal with and handle situations that come about as a result of moral issues and principles that are part of the financial sector. During the course of everyday life, everybody; consumers to executives, may be affected by business ethics. It is this line of thinking that makes business ethics a crucial element in the handling of everyday business. The code of ethics in every financial sector demands honesty, integrity, and transparency (Huevel et al., 2009). Business ethics are crucial in communicating the core values that are tantamount in the growth and development of society and organizations. Dealing with numbers on a large scale, especially in large corporations, there is always pressure to perform. This may make individuals to try and engage in some unscrupulous activities just to please the organization and stakeholders of the organization. Business ethics, in this case, steps in to ensure that members of an organization have what it takes to handle the pressure and protect the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity, and at the same time, offer transparency to the internal and external members of the organization. In truth, business ethics may act as an outside source of guidance, even as there is pressure to perform from every angle in the business spectrum. Ethics may also act as boundaries when it comes to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. When dealing with finances, it becomes rather tricky to always be on the right track. This means that it is a daunting task to protect... These policies act as guides as they contain specific requirements and identify the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations of the employees throughout the working process. This leads to a better awareness of the benefits and advantages of having moral principles in everyday business dealings. The environmental factors that surround an organization can also be monitored to ensure that unethical conditions are reduced. A case in point would be the over-competitive nature that people in the organization are exposed to that may lead to unethical behavior. Monitoring such an environment could be of benefit to the growth of ethical standards in the organizations. In conclusion, if firms or organizations are keen on operating a certain way, it is crucial for them to write down moral codes. They need to follow these principles and rules so that they can protect the integrity and honesty of the financial sector. Money is not evil. Rather, it is something that is used to run commercial activities between individuals and organizations. It should not be the cause of all the squabbles and disagreements that are seen on most financial fronts in the world. It may be alright to make a lot of money provided individuals conform to the rules and regulations of the law and society. The disconnection between a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s code of ethics and its activities needs to be bridged. This makes it easier to handle the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s members, society, and stakeholders as they strive to conquer the international business market.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Training and Career Management - Essay Example The competition in the market for skilled workforce has greatly augmented. There are certain key sought after skills that are highly desirable by different sectors, however availing the benefits of such skills often becomes challenging (Eraut, n.d.). Retaining and attract employee talent pool: There is a huge competition prevailing in the market to retain as well as to attract employee talent pool. Consequently, to enhance workplace desirability, providing the scope for learning by the employers plays a vital role (Eraut, n.d.). Workforce diversity along with changing demographics: Diverse workforce and altering demographics act as a key force affecting workplace learning as age, gender and ethnicity of the employees are evolving (American Society for Training and Development, 2008). Funding issues related to training and development: Providing proper training and development is a key constituent for enhancing workplace learning. However, keeping aside adequate funding has always remained a major concern for a number of companies especially during financial uncertainty (Eraut, n.d.). Providing training to the employees can greatly help the companies to deal with these forces. The requirement of skilled employees can be fulfilled by providing proper training to the employees especially the new comers along with the existing one. The aspect of training possesses the ability to increase the overall productivity of the companies. The proper guidance and training can definitely help in retaining and attracting employees. Training can also facilitate to enhance knowledge sharing and comprehend the significance of the forces for the companies which in turn would enable them to determine the strategies to handle different compelling forces (Eraut, n.d.). A company that is dominant in its product market mainly emphasizes the development of various strategies. The company primarily concentrates on increasing its market share. The training
Monday, July 22, 2019
War on Drugs and Prison Overcrowding Analysis Essay The war on drugs is not just a catch phrase; it is a current way of life for everyone involved in our criminal justice system. It does not mean the elimination of drugs, nor is it about decreasing drug use or drug supplies. It is just about control and money, thus leading to higher prison rates and overcrowding. There are millions of offenders who are being caught, arrested and jailed based on mandatory minimum sentencing for each particular state. Whether they have a drug related charge, or a crime related charge, these minimum sentencings are providing profits to more privatized prison corporations where everyone in society plays a particular role. Advocates of social justice might be concerned with incarceration rates that show racial differences while the financially conservative taxpayer would be worried about the costs (The Cost of a Nation of Incarceration, 2012).Ã¢â¬ It is apparent that our states legislature needs new ideas and solutions in order to prevail, considering that they have the ability to make or break policy changes. The causes of what makes up our American prison system are known, however there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t many solutions for decreasing the costs being placed on our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s taxpayers. This writer has come up with three possible solutions to this answer. The first solution is to release first time and or non-violent offenders on the basis that they will serve a reasonable amount of time conducting community service. This idea can shorten prison sentences as well as the costs. The second solution is to shorten or lower sentences for less severe violent crimes so that the offender doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t become a long term prisoner or Ã¢â¬Å"lifer.Ã¢â¬ The third solution is to transfer inmates with mental illnesses over to a reasonable mental health institute. By implementing these solutions we can see a decrease in the prison popul ation with hardly any extra cost to us, the tax payers.
Coffee and Starbucks Essay In 1971, Starbucks was founded on a love for coffee and 42 years later you can still go in and expect the same delicious cup of steaming hot coffee from your local store, served to you from a friendly face. Starbucks mission is Ã¢â¬Å"to inspire and nurture the human spirit Ã¢â¬â one person, one cup, and one neighborhood at a time. Today, with more than 18,000 stores in 62 countries, Starbucks is the premier roaster and retailer of specialty coffee in the world. And with every cup, we strive to bring both our heritage and an exceptional experience to life. Ã¢â¬ (http://www. starbucks. com/about-us/our-heritage). They offer the best roasted coffee, handcrafted beverages; coffee experience products, excellence service and innovation, plus they are dedicated to produce a great coffee experience to customers. (Starbucks, 2011) The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ organizational structure and the best form of organizational structure that best fits Starbucks with an emphasis on Job description and Job Specification for a Starbucks employee. I will also try to determine the form of departmentalization that should be used, as well as whether centralization or decentralization of power should be used in light of the recent financial struggles theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve had. Lastly, I will attempt to determine which organizational configuration best fits Starbucks. Job description is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a formal lists of tasks and dutiesÃ¢â¬ and Job specification is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a list of eligibility requirements or qualifications needed to perform a jobÃ¢â¬ (Reilly, Minnick Baack. 2011). These definitions will be used in creating a position for a new employee. Job Description: If you love coffee and helping people than you just might be perfect for this job! At Starbucks, we strive to provide a much needed service in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s busy world. At Starbucks you can learn all about different coffee beans from all over the world and help in developing a great working team. You will be trained in what it means to thoroughly enjoy your job, the people you work with in a clean and safe environment and to enjoy working with the best coffee you can imagine. Job Specification: Develop a working knowledge of all products we offer. Maintain a clean and friendly store. Maintain a professional attitude and your composure should the store become busier than usual. Anticipates customer and store needs. Be Flexible with shifts and days that you can work. Starbucks should be using is departmentalization by geographic region. Starbuck locations are all over the United States. Starbucks uses a matrix configuration by combining divisional and functional structures. Divisional structure is used in multi-product or multi-market operations. Starbucks fall into this structure by having so many different beverages and items on the menu. When putting out so many different items one has to specialize in those items. Starbucks trains their employees to know every item inside and out. You cannot have one person who can make one drink and nit another. They use functional structure to stay organized activities such as coordination, supervision and task allocation. With 18,000 stores it takes many teams to stay updated of everything that is going on in the market. Starbucks hires people who specialize in marketing strategy to keep them on top of the market. The form should be changed in the stores that serve lunch because the structure of the work changes. It becomes more of a machine bureaucracy in that it is highly routine in making drinks as well as sandwiches and salads. When you have to repeat something many times you are working like a machine. Starbucks has decentralized authority because they created decision-making for each manager. There are also lots of stores around the world and each store has different from the authority, managers, and customers. This also allows for employees to be able to give their thoughts, opinions, and ideas. If the company uses their ideas they are rewarded. It also allows for the lines of communication to stay open between employees and managers which allows for a friendly working environment. Starbucks is making sure that it is here to stay. By surrounding itself and its team members with the best training and communication they stand out against all competitors. Yes, other will try to stand up against the designer coffee label but when it comes down to it Starbucks is finding new ways to stay at the top. With being in different regions they have created an evening atmosphere where you can drop in after work, with friends, after yoga, by yourself, after a long day or after a great day. The food is amazing. The wine selection is simple and smart (www. starbucks. com/coffeehouse/starbucks-stores/starbucks-evenings). Starbucks will change the structure of the business as many times as it takes to make it work for them. You never know they may create things that work for them that do not work for other coffee shops. REFERENCES Reilly, M. , Minnick, C. , Baack, D. (2011). The five functions of effective management. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. https://starbucks. com https://starbucks. com/about-us/out-heritage.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Analytical Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Industry Miracles do happen and chances of happening such events are rare. Scientific discoveries have also seen such miracles. The approach and efforts required in scientific happenings are based on basic principles. The mode of application of these established principles differ from one stream to another stream of scientific disciplines. The principle of chemistry and physics are amalgamated to give rise to number of measuring devices. These devices are further restructured to suit application. Analytical chemistry can be defined as the science and art of determining the composition of materials in terms of their elements or compounds contained1 in it. Qualitative analysis gives useful details from which functional groups, structural features, atomic species or molecular species. Quantitative analysis gives numerical data in units i.e. percentage, parts per million, moles per liter etc. In above two types of analysis, the required data is obtained by measuring a physical property which is characteristically related to respective component of interest i.e. the analyte2. The most important aspect of analysis is quantitative analysis. The techniques of analytical chemist are of vital importance to the drug and pharmaceutical industries. Products are usually complex organic compounds or mixtures. Drugs prepared for human consumption requires strict standards of product quality be established and maintained. In past, methods of biological assay were often the only measure of product activity available. With the advent of modern instrumentation, techniques of analyst became more versatile and less time consuming, and quantitative analysis supplemented and sometimes replaced biological assay. In those instances where it is possible to establish a rigorous correlation between biological activity and chemical composition of product, analysis can be invaluable in controlling manufacturing operations as well as in determination of product purity and activity. It is noted that the progress and advancement of analytical chemistry depends to a greater extent upon an intelligent application of the fundamentals of physical chemistry and close relationship between physical and analytical chemistry. Recent rapid progress in physical methods of analysis, in many instances, resulted from pioneering investigations of scientists, principally physicists. In 1930 Willard recognized the demands being placed on analytical chemistry by rapid industrial progress. A parallel recognition of importance of analytical chemistry to industry occurred in Europe in same year. Churchill states that contribution of the analytical chemist to research program will be most effective if he is given the opportunity to participate while the program is being planned. In 1940s several direct reading quantitative spectrophotometers were reported. In these instruments the emitted spectral energy of certain chosen lines is transformed to a proportional electrical output by photomultiplier tubes. By suitable amplification and with appropriate recording devices, percentages of the constituents present are automatically recorded. The outstanding advantage of such equipment is its ability to reduce the time requirement for performing an analysis. New information made available by combining various tools of analytical chemist, has been described in several articles. The methods of analysis used to solve industrial problems may be classified as:- Fully developed, generally accepted methods of analysis. Generally accepted methods which are adapted to make them suitable for the problem. New methods which must be developed when available ones are not adequate. Industrial analysis is defined as the utilization of chemical and physical techniques for solving problems arising in industry. In some industrial processes it is desirable to obtain a very rapid or continuous analysis of a product or mixture. Considerable progress has been made in developing automatic method of analysis to fulfill this need. While it has not often been possible to automate entire procedures, from sampling to recording of results many examples of partly automated analytical operations can be cited. Factors pertinent to evaluation of analytical methods in each of these groups were discussed in the present section. A method of analysis is standard or accepted only in the sense that a number of analysts have judged it to be adequate for obtaining certain analytical information. Ideally, analyst views the standard method as a Ã¢â¬Å"best approachÃ¢â¬ rather than an obvious solution. If satisfactory results are obtained the method can be applied to the sample under consideration with some assurance that the experimental procedure is not at fault. The analyst himself should perform this part of work even if future measurements will be carried out by technicians or laboratory assistant. Only by performing the manipulation and observing the reaction can the analyst forming thoroughly acquainted with the details of an analytical procedure. The advisable method is when it appears to give satisfactory results, include consideration of interfering elements or compounds and determination of blank. While interferences which prevent a method from working properly are readily detected, those which produce a constant error in the analytical result are much more insidious and seldom apparent. Determination of a blank eliminates possible source of constant errors, such as contaminants in reagents and uncorrected background in instrumental measurements. In many standard methods the design and dimensions of the equipment are critical, particularly when properties of material rather than its composition is being studied. Many modification of an analytical method are possible and each problem or sample dictates the changes required to make the method effective. In some methods modification involves change in equipment or technique. For example, numerous spectrographic procedures have been developed for analyzing the metallic contaminants or additives in lubricating oils. Methods, which fail or suffer loss in sensitivity when certain interferences are present, may sometimes, need to be modified by introducing an additional step in the procedure which eliminates or deactivates the interfering element. Once a procedure has been adapted to a particular problem it may be evaluated in the same manner as a standard method. The usual precautions related to proper manipulation and standardizations, avoiding contamination and blank determinations must be observed. When problem is confronted which cannot be solved with established methods of analysis, it becomes necessary for analyst to create and develop new analytical procedures. This situation arises when any or all of the following factors are in effect. The substance sought has not previously been determined, when no methods are now available for all elements. The substance sought is a component of a mixture not previously analyzed. Any other element or compound present in a mixture may invalidate established methods of analysis by interference effects. Sometimes the component producing the interferences can be eliminated and a modified form of the original procedure can be used, as already described. Higher order of sensitivity is required when component sought is present in small quantity (mg). A method capable of analyzing in desired concentration range must be developed. Problems arising in industry are complicated by sample limitations. Often the sample is available in very small amounts and special techniques are required for gaining maximum information from a minimum quantity of material. Analysis must be non-destructive. At times it is required that the sample remain unaltered by the analytical procedure. For example compositional information on an expensive finished product is required, a non-destructive analytical method. Speed or time is critical requirement when conventional methods cannot complete an analysis within a prescribed time requirement, faster methods must be developed. Analytical Chemistry importance in different scientific areas: Importance of analytical chemistry in related scientific areas can be demonstrated by considering analytical chemistryÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on clinical analysis, and in pharmaceutical research and in quality control. Sensitive chemical and instrumental tests were advised in order to detect abnormal and normal components of body fluids. Blood and urine samples are determined for percentage of glucose, urea, nitrogen, protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, uric acid etc. Similarly, the quality of manufactured drug in tablets, solution and emulsion form must be carefully controlled in pharmaceutical industry, otherwise the drug can itself affect the therapeutic value. In other pharmaceutical studies, it is important to establish properties and therapeutic value of a drug before the drug is approved and made available to the public. Analytical Techniques: Few of medicinal products were still being analyzed by time-tested procedures of gravimetric and also titrimetric procedures. A wide diversity in different type of analytical techniques has been characteristic of assay methods for pharmaceutical products. Different analytical techniques were been employed for estimation of wide variety of components in the formulation:- Titrimetric and gravimetric method Colorimetric and UV spectrophotometric method Paper chromatography Preparative thin layer chromatography Column chromatography Ion-exchange chromatography Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Variables in Quantitative Analysis: Inhomogeneity of the medicament Sampling error Preparation of samples such as extraction Precision, accuracy and ruggedness of the method Random error including that of the operator. Newer Analytical Techniques: As technology is developing, a number of new drugs are launched in the market and it is essential to develop new methods of analysis. It is necessary to do if; No analytical methods are available for a drug in official books such as pharmacopoeias. No literature reveals methods for estimation of drugs. Analytical method available only for single drug in a combined form of drug. No method reported for the estimation in biological fluids. NEED OF ANALYTICAL APPROACHES IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY The pharmaceutical industry has always had in place a series of process controls which assures the integrity of the end product. Ã¢â¬Å"A simple way of looking at it is that the Food Drugs Act Regulations are merely an auditing mechanism to quantify that industry has sufficient process controls and documented procedures in place to ensure they are in complete control of every aspect related to drug manufacturing,Ã¢â¬ There are in essence, three pillars to drug manufacturing and distribution: 1. Quality Assurance (QA) 2. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) 3. Quality Control (QC) Quality Assurance is ensuring that you get what you pay for. It is the insurance policy for the manufacturer.Ã¢â¬ As a brief overview, the GMPs are part of Quality Assurance and ensure that drugs are produced consistently and are controlled at each and every step. QC is a part of Good Manufacturing Practices and is responsible for sampling and also for testing. It examines and ensures that all aspects of product from raw materials and integrity of the product itself to the packaging materials and insert, meet their specifications. It encompasses testing of the end product and all of its primary ingredients. QA covers documentation of all of the procedures that have taken place from start to finish of entire process. This, in combination with QCs sampling and testing, allows QA to ensure products integrity, purity and potency have not been compromised and it has satisfied all requirements. When QA is completed and satisfactory, the final step is permitted allowing a product to be r eleased for sale to the consumer. But, their job doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop here. Since Quality Assurance is responsible for assuring that final product is meeting quality, consistency and integrity for its intended use, it must also account for when the product leaves the manufacturing site. Thus, QA is also responsible for ensuring that appropriate arrangements have been made with distributors and warehouses to guarantee that the product is handled, stored and shipped in such a way that its quality is maintained for the duration of its approved shelf life. The overall time required for development of a pharmaceutical from Discovery Research through to the Regulatory Review Phase. There is clear evidence that this can in some cases take upwards of 15 years with costs reaching into millions of dollars. With this level of Research and Development investment, the industry has no intention of allowing a breakdown in final stages of manufacturing and distribution process. Therefore, before a product actually reaches market, QA involvement is also the key in the registration dossier preparation. A portion of this dossier contains a Master Production Document (MPD) which outlines exactly how the product will be manufactured. Within this MPD, a manufacturer defines clear specifications for all raw materials, packaging materials, in-process and finished product along with the sampling procedures and also Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) related to critical processing. The issuing of a Notice of Compliance and a Drug Identification Number are contingent on a complete and acceptable Master Production Document. Then manufacturing license holders are also responsible for conducting an annual self-inspection and documenting their procedures and processes are in compliance with the requirements of the GMPs. If the manufactured product is stored in bottles (syrups), fabricating, packaging/labeling, importation, distribution, wholesale (Schedule C, D, F or G products) or testing of pharmaceutical products must first hold an Establishment License issued by Government. PRESENT STUDY: Development of new drugs, drug manufacturing is dependent on drug analysis. Pharmaceutical companies depend upon drug analysis quantitatively to conform that the raw materials used, in-process compounds and final products manufactured were meeting the required specifications. New drug formulations and new drugs were introduced into the market at increased pace compared to earlier days, as the technology is developed. These formulations and drugs were either new chemical entities or partial structural modifications of existing drugs or new dosage forms. Frequently, it happens that the new drugs inclusion in pharmacopoeias will be delayed because of several reasons. Hence these standards or the analytical methods for these drugs may not be available in pharmacopoeias. Hence it is essential to develop new methods of analysis for these drugs. Based on this, few combinations were selected for the present studies which were currently marketed from Anti Hypertensives17-22, Anti HIV23-35 and Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs36-47. Amlodipine Besylate Telmisartan Lamivudine Zidovudine Thiocolchicoside Etoricoxib Literature survey was performed extensively and it was found that spectrophotometric methods were reported and also HPLC methods were reported for the determination of these drugs from their biological fluids. However, there were no reports found for their quantitation by HPLC methods from their formulations. Hence it is essential to develop newer rapid analytical methods3-16 on HPLC.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Who Is Beloved? After reading the novel Beloved by Toni Morrison, many readers may find them selves asking who Beloved really was. There are basically three answers that would satisfy this question; that she is the actual baby ghost come back to life, a random woman who came to fulfill the needs of the protagonists, and the view of, does it really matter? These possibilities will be discussed throughout the duration of this essay and it will be left to you to decide what you think. In the support of Beloved actually being the baby ghost re-born, you could use the fact that she knew a song that Sethe made up to sing to her children to prove this theory. " 'I made up that song,' said Sethe. 'I made it up and sang it to my children. Nobody knows that song but me and my children' " Sethe pg. 176 "Beloved turned to look at Sethe. 'I know it,' she said." Beloved pg.176 The fact that Beloved knew about Sethe's earrings also adds to this. How she seemed to know all of the right questions to ask Sethe and when she should ask them. Symbolism also factors into this idea. Beloved came out of the water, Sethe had an experience like her water would break in pregnancy when she saw Beloved, and Beloved drank so much water, as an infant child would have to do. Water in this case refers to life and re-birth. A third piece of evidence would be Beloved's appearance; she had soft unwrinkled skin, like that of a baby; "She had new skin, lineless and smooth, including the knuckles of her hands." Pg. 50 Beloved had what seemed to be little wisps of hair across her forehead, these were decided later to be the imprints of Sethe's nails from where Sethe held Beloved to hold her in place in order to slit her throat. Taking all of this into account, it is enough to convince almost anyone that the facts are too great for Beloved to be anyone but the baby ghost reincarnated. While the facts for Beloved being the actual baby ghost reincarnated seem overwhelming there is also the idea that she might be just some random woman. Beloved's appearance at 124 seemed to have impeccable timing, which brought about the question of "was she was a random woman who heard about the family and took the needed place of the baby ghost." Some of the information brought to the aide of Beloved's being the baby ghost can be contradicted in this theory.
Friday, July 19, 2019
What It Means To Be an Australian Australia is a very unique place, along with our multiculturalism there is also a strong heritage surrounding us. At first thought of Australian heritage we think about such landmarks as Uluru, The Sydney harbour bridge and The Sydney opera house, The Great Barrier reef and other internationally recognised places. But our heritage goes much deeper than that; it is far more than outstanding icons. Along with these icons there are also unsung places like the old cattle stations, Aboriginal missions, migrant hostels, War memorials, our unique wetlands and the towns and cities we have built. Adding all of these things together, helps to tell the story of who we are and how we have shaped this land in the unique identity it has today. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã But familiar landmarks and also the unfamiliar ones aren't the whole make-up of Australia's heritage. It's the people that make a difference. Australia is made up of people from all walks of life who have migrated here for different reasons. Among these, the most common migrants are from Greece, Italy, Russia and Asia. Australia is made up of material culture: the places and objects, but also Living culture: In forms such as Music, Crafts, Literature etc. It is an interplay between international cultures and beliefs, the claims of nationalism and ethnic and religious traditions, as well as the local and community priorities thatÃ¢â¬â¢s make up the unique Australian heritage. The Aboriginal people of Australia were here thousands of years before European settlement and we forced them to adapt to the changes of environment around them. This change might be for better or worse, but we will never find out. But with the European settlement came the birth of industry, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacture, electricity, gas and water just to name a few.
Richard Milhous Nixon, (1913-1994), nik's[sch ]n, 37th PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. Nixon is remembered for his achievements in foreign policy and for the WATERGATE affair and related scandals, in which he became so involved that he was forced to resign his office. Nixon was a skilled negotiator with a broad understanding of world affairs. He and his adviser Henry Kissinger ended direct U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. They improved relations with China and the Soviet Union. They helped end a war between Israel and its Arab neighbors and worked toward a lasting peace in the Middle East. But the restrictive oil policies of Middle Eastern countries further weakened an American economy that slipped into a recession during Nixon's last year in office. The president's career was shattered when evidence established that he had joined members of his staff in trying to cover up the Watergate break-in. Nixon's decline and fall spanned two years as the truth slowly unfolded before an incredulous nation. Dozens of government officials, campaign aides, and financial contributors were implicated in the scandal. In his later years Nixon sought to rehabilitate his image, lecturing frequently, traveling abroad, advising presidents, and publishing several books on U.S. foreign policy. Before becoming president, Nixon served in the U.S. House and the U.S. Senate and as vice president. An articulate spokesman for the REPUBLICAN PARTY, he was named to the GOP national ticket a recor...
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Helen Day is a part-time journalist and blogger. She maintains her blog entitled Street beat on a variety of current social issues. This blog entry, The Power of Ink, is about tattoos and it has drawn a variety of responses from readers of her blog. In recent years, the practice of Ã¢â¬ËinkingÃ¢â¬â¢ your body, or having tattoos indelibly imprinted on your skin has become almost Ã¢â¬Ëde rigueurÃ¢â¬â¢ for many in our society, especially the young. There is a wide variety of views about this practice and Helen Day, a regular blogger, has her say in her entry Ã¢â¬ËThe Power of InkÃ¢â¬â¢. Rather than lecturing her substantial audience of followers, Day chooses simply to trace the stages of the history of tattoos, focusing on the changes in their meaning and significance. Her use of examples and language with negative connotations is effective in arguing that people who choose to Ã¢â¬ËadornÃ¢â¬â¢ themselves with tattoos are just as much victims or prisoners as those for whom they were originally intended. Her blog attracted four extremely varied responses within the next twenty four hours, showing that this is indeed a contentious issue. Helen Day begins by establishing the ubiquitous nature of tattoos. In a light-hear ted, humorous fashion, she mentions that people from all walks of life, including Ã¢â¬Ësuburban housewivesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ënewsreaders and sitcom starsÃ¢â¬â¢ have words and pictures Ã¢â¬Ëdraw[n]Ã¢â¬â¢ on their skin. Even at this early stage, she mentions Ã¢â¬ËprisonÃ¢â¬â¢ and readers may feel uncomfortable with this reference, which is just what the writer intends. She clearly states her contention that Ã¢â¬Ëthe power of ink has diminishedÃ¢â¬â¢. Day begins her argument by clearly establishing the original purpose of tattooing, using examples from Ã¢â¬ËmillenniaÃ¢â¬â¢ as support. She mentions the origins of the practice where the Ã¢â¬Ëunconsenting backs of prisoners and slavesÃ¢â¬â¢ were marked to show that they were owned, Ã¢â¬ËdeviantÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËincarceratedÃ¢â¬â¢. She goes further to remind readers of the literal and metaphorical Ã¢â¬Ëindelible crueltyÃ¢â¬â¢ of the tattoos forced upon inmates of the Nazi concentration camps during World War 11. Her words are carefully chosen at this stage of her argument to create a feeling of unease and repulsion in her audience at the idea that tattoos representedÃ Ã¢â¬ËownershipÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËcontrolÃ¢â¬â¢ and that those on whom they were imposed were considered to be Ã¢â¬Ësomewhere between property and machineÃ¢â¬â¢. By associating tattoos with lack of free will or self-determination, she predisposes her readers to think negatively of the practice of tattooing, even before she considers what it represents in contemporary society. Day goes on to provide an illustration of how those forced to wear tattoos resented this imposition and how they showed their refusal to be controlled, satirising their Ã¢â¬ËownersÃ¢â¬â¢ by adopting their own version of an ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s mark. She connects this act of Ã¢â¬ËdefianceÃ¢â¬â¢ to the motivation behind her decision to demonstrate her Ã¢â¬ËfeministÃ¢â¬â¢ principles in the 1990s, wryly remarking that her attempt to protest and be unique fell flat because now Ã¢â¬ËevenÃ¢â¬â¢ the British Prime MinisterÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has an ankle tattoo. The language the writer uses here is quite mocking of her young self. She separates herself from the young Helen, representing her actions as clichÃ © and immature, in an attempt to position her readers to view it i n the same way. The comment from young Ã¢â¬ËTashÃ¢â¬â¢ (written late at night) is a perfect example of such (some might say misguided) youthful impulsiveness. Readers can hear the excitement in Ã¢â¬ËTashÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËvoiceÃ¢â¬â¢ as she describes how she Ã¢â¬Ëdesigned [her] own ankle braceletÃ¢â¬â¢ and how she likes to Ã¢â¬Ëshow it offÃ¢â¬â¢. The use of language such as Ã¢â¬ËlikeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËyeahÃ¢â¬â¢, suggests that she is very young and may one day regret her decision just as Helen Day does. The comment from Ã¢â¬ËCleanskinÃ¢â¬â¢ also echoes DayÃ¢â¬â¢s point that tattoos Ã¢â¬ËfadeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËstretchÃ¢â¬â¢ over time and may not suit an older person. These responses underline the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s message of Ã¢â¬Ëact in haste, repent at leisureÃ¢â¬â¢ and young readers may cringe when reading Ã¢â¬ËTashÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ enthusiastic comment. Day concludes her blog entry by redefining the social meaning of tattoos in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. She describes them as having been Ã¢â¬ËcommodifiedÃ¢â¬â¢, that is, just something else to be bought and sold and with no real significance. She use s the expression Ã¢â¬Ëtry hardÃ¢â¬â¢, suggesting that people who have tattoos are doing so to create a false image of themselves in order to find acceptance. Readers would certainly not like to be included in this category. By describing tattoos as Ã¢â¬ËfashionÃ¢â¬â¢s proprietary markÃ¢â¬â¢, she is claiming that those who decide to tattoo themselves are just as much slaves and prisoners as the original bearers of these marks, it is just that their owner is now Ã¢â¬ËfashionÃ¢â¬â¢. In suggesting that tattoo wearers are still under the control of an outside force, thatÃ fashion trends are dictating their actions, she hopes that readers will review their attitude to the practice. The contrast between the two accompanying images starkly demonstrates the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that the meaning of tattoos has changed. The Ta Moko on the arms of the three Maori men clearly mark them as members of the same clan. The three tattoos are identical to each other, suggesting that the design is traditional and has a particular significance for the wearers. Ã¢â¬ËKiwiÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ indignant description of non-Maoris imitating the Ã¢â¬ËsacredÃ¢â¬â¢ Ta Moko as Ã¢â¬Ëidentity theftÃ¢â¬â¢ would act as a strong disincentive to readers to undertake such a Ã¢â¬Ëdisgraceful and immoralÃ¢â¬â¢ action. The other shoulder tattoo of a star, shown on the front cover of Sam de BritoÃ¢â¬â¢s 2006 book, might well have been designed by the wearer, but it has none of the c ultural Ã¢â¬ËweightÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Ta Moko designs. The images reinforce the idea that it may be fashion that is dictating the current trend to tattoo oneÃ¢â¬â¢s skin. This blog is certainly cause for thought. Although Helen Day sets out to argue that Ã¢â¬Ëthe power of ink has diminishedÃ¢â¬â¢, she actually argues against this. In establishing the contention that tattoos are still just as powerful a message about ownership, but that the Ã¢â¬ËownerÃ¢â¬â¢ has changed from government and slave owner to the tyrant of fashion, she prompts her online audience to rethink whether in deciding to Ã¢â¬ËinkÃ¢â¬â¢ themselves they are actually being a Ã¢â¬ËuniqueÃ¢â¬â¢ rebellious individual or just another fashion victim.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
A get a line on the regard of discolor trade on Purchasing determination as Perceived by fresh Professionals on Makati metropolis A enquiry Paper Presented to Ms. Lydia A. Basaysay In Partial fulfillment for the Requirements of the Course in parley liberal arts II Presented by nonsuch jubilate Mandigal Far Eastern University-Makati October 4, 2012 I. INTRODUCTION In the late 1980s thither ar various purlieual disasters that exist which distinguishs the surroundalism in the spot light source.Among these were the Exon Valdez Oil Spill in Alaska, devastation of Germ whatsoevers Black timber by acid rain, release of venomous chemicals in the Rhine River and the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in Philippines fit to Ottman (1998 as cited in Suplico 2009). Those environmental issues that menti championd argon antecedent by the globes growing population that top outs to scarcity of goods. As a result, unfledged were introduced in the trade that fosters to make less damaging to the environment. In a accept of Nandini & Deshpande (2011) verbalise that the park construct ar advertn in the coupled States and has been agniseing steadily ever ince. In detailed, stemma firms realized that this environmental issue serves as a food selling hazard for them. They look atd that it leave help them to increment their line of reasoning boodle thus they started to adopt the fantasy of commonalty trade placeing by implementing thouness down in measures to save earths resources in carrefourion. Tan &Yeap (2012) On the new(prenominal) hand, Suplico (2009) cited that merchandising fulfils vexation and human answer by providing service to nodes through with(predicate) mathematical convergences such as the food mint eat, the clothes they wear, the home base where they live and the cars they drive.Hence, the determinations on what products to make and how to project them argon the responsibility of merchandising functions. Additi onally, congested (2009) stated that the purposes on what products to make argon relate to what to take and both the make and taking deales. Eventually the wasting transit that takes into ecological costs in the stock of dissolution, pollution and damage of ecosystems that turn backs the attri simplyes of products and the specific systems though which they ar made available to the breadets.And to determine resource affair and emaciate times postures, which the antecedents of pollution and ecosystems degradation. Due of that, the market has a challenge to reinvent product systems to accomplish zero waste, zero discharger out stupefys while gravid the corresponding(p) benefits to consumers that meets their node expectations on product. enquiry studies to the spunkyest degree kibibyte down of a product or service accommodate ontogenyd exp one(a)ntially over the stretch forth decades that conducted until now, conformed by Leonidou, Leonidou and Kvasova (2011). commonwealth get interest on overwhelming eco-fri cobblers lastly products or serve due(p) of the environmental issues problem that lead market segment to produce a so called discolour trade. This look into is followed of come through major streams, which ar explained below. In a survey that Nandini &Deshapande (2011) conducted, it mentioned that jet plane marketing is an body process that designed to generate and facilitate any exchange intended in revisal to action human take or extremitys such as that satisfying that needs and wants to occur with token(prenominal) detrimental commentary on the national environment.Further much, concord to Zsolnai (2002656) as cited in Smith & Perks (2010) appended that honey oil tune organization is a rail line that has adopted the concept of being environmentalism across the various functions of the subscriber line. in concert with the theatre of Yazdanifard & gentleness (2011) affirmed that jet plane marketing serv es as a beam of light for auspices of the environment for the futurity contemporaries which has a positive allude on environmental safety. In early(a) words, parking lot marketing was made in business functions due to the reason to save intermixture range of environmental issues that consumers experienced.Specifically, in the playscript European Communities (20045) defined kB accomplish as a giving an manikin and figure out the market place by promoting its the youngness products or work with the authority of the public which can tolerate the industry with incentives for developing jet technologies. As a matter of fact, dark- jet-propelled plane marketing campaign highlighted the superior of environmental security system characteristics of a bon tons products and serve whether those benefits take the form of reduce waste of packaging, change magnitude zip fastener efficiency in product engaged or shine release of toxic emissions and other pollutants in pr oduction.Encyclopedia of contrast (2nded. ). Meanwhile, Tan &Yeap (2012) study insist that the jet plane movement be not only focused on the environmental protection purpose but allow firms orbiculately compete to the corporate world since mostly firms applied these commonality movement. In addition, Smith & Perks (2010) probe most the equal of common marketing on business functions founded out that those human resource, management and finance department of firms which has a least pertain b the potassium business practise.On the other hand in the shape up synopsis of Smith & Perks revealed that the surgery, marketing and distribution functions of business be the most affect of commonality drill of firms. Wherefore, business must hunch their intentions o goals since mostly of its functions rivaled of young recitation. Bukhari (2012) discussed in his study that companies developed much new and improved products and serve with environment inputs in mind. A s a result, it enables firms to gain competitive, improve ecological performance, educe operation costs, erect corporate image of firms and increase the profit sustainability.On the other side, Ottman (2011) explained that through special K overwhelming entrust served as a new source for innovation of global market because market segment believe that being gullible means doing things several(predicate)ly. However, consumers are one that witnessed the existence of jet-propelled plane enforce to market. To agree on that, in the excrete-and-take of National Consumer Council (20027) postulated a fact that consumers are at the centre of environmental issues, everything that consumers do in their lives shock absorbers on the environment.In that condition, the people leave behind start to come the green leverage with a belief that it result help to counteract the environmental issues that they undergo. That fact that cited was support by Suplico (2009) in her study that cons umers are really awake of the green consuming such as debaseing environmentally kind products. It showed in her study that the respondents or consumers agreed that they allow for buy products that are non-toxic, recyclable/reasonable/refillable, degradable, non-polluting, and free from fleshly testing, ozone friendly, energy efficient and cause minimal household waste.In short, people are ordain to bought products that are harmonious to the environment. Although, green practice of business function and consumers help to prevent globally environmental issues and give firms an opportunity to boost up their profit, let off it has near other side impact in market and consumers. To prove it, Lin &Ho (2010) claimed on their study that the environmental uncertainty and green practice complexity defecate a prodigious negative becharm on green adoption.Additionally, in a report of Romero (2008) stick on in news the statement of Von Hernandez, immature Peace Executive Directo r for sou-east Asia that going green of the businesses is a vast thing but it would be misdirect to the consumers. Identically, on the blog of Hicks (2009) exposed that the use of eco labelling just astir(predicate) the environmental credentials of firms are only made consumers more confuse about the product or service. Similarly, according to Lipp (2010) that articulated in his blog that in the reality the green products that offered are come in a higher charge tag, in which can face market obstacles.And a want, Tantawi, Shaughnessy, Gad and Ragheb (2009) conceded that going green has contradicts in result. They confirmed in their study that those environmental concern products and serve is a dwarfish luxurious that only afforded by laden and only shed a light upon the possibility of going green. In the same matter, found on the blog of Makower (2011) explicated that green marketing are not changing consumers mind but is snub by the biggest marketers, are not changin g things, instead mislead consumers and does not give companies where its due.The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of green marketing on the finality make of consumers in Makati City. Precisely, this study give response and explicate the chase the questions 1) are consumers sensitive on the concepts of green consuming? 2) Is in that respect a significant meat of green marketing on score committedness? Obviously, this publisher wants to address if the concept helps the firms to increase the brand loyalty on products or services. Thus, this will exposed if the set up of the concepts to brand loyalty whether it has an advantage or disadvantage to the business functions and consumers.And for the last question, 3) Is there a significant implication of influence of green consuming that executed on the consumers and business functions? The significance of this look writing that will conduct is important because it will distinguish more information about green co nsuming to the consumers. As a matter of fact, this will make consumers more sure to the practice of green consuming that implemented the conservation of environment. For additional reasons, this paper will analogize the impact of green marketing to its relations to the brand loyalty of consumers on products.Hence, its briny reason that tie in on green marketing is to give benefits on business functions, environment and mostly consumers. II. METHODOLOGY This paper determines to analyse the influence of the green practice movement of businesses functions on the offered products and services in market that consumed by the different consumes. 2. 1 Participants Thirty people from selected areas of Makati will be chosen as the participants of this research. The thirty will divided into 3 roots of ten students, workers and non-workers from different places.Every each group of participants contains of fin males and five females. 2. 2 Instruments This research surveys will confirms th e impact of adoption of green practice of different firms in country. The selective information for this study will come from one source compartmentalized in one survey questionnaire form. First, is the demographic part of the questionnaire that will be used of personal pen information from therespondent. It includes of the respondents age, gender and profession whether they are students, workers or employees and non-workers.Second was the self-rating reading. This part is used to hoard up data information about their opinions that based on a given statement. The research questionnaire that used is the Likert Scale Type. This Likert are answerable by five scales (SA) Strongly gybe, (A) Agree, (AD) Agree/ Dis Agree, (D) Dis Agree and (SD) Strongly Dis Agree. The scale has different criteria that concentrate on the persuasiveness of the impact of green marketing on the buying pattern of consumers. 2. 3 ProcedureAll the data from respondents demographic and self-rating reading info rmation will be gathered. The questionnaire will administer to the respondents before end of September 2012. The respondents are taught to fill in the survey questionnaire, consulting that there were no decent or wrong answer. The respondents can took five minutes to finish the questionnaire that given. To see if there are significant impacts of green marketing on the buying pattern demeanour of consumer, whether it has exertioniveness. III.DISCUSSION This research study tries to determine the impact of green marketing on the decision making in purchase of consumers. With bear upon to a) the significant information of aware(predicate)ness of consumes on green practice of three groups, b) the forte of the green practice of business on products and service that offered in the consume ecstasy of consumers and c) certain insights that can be wee-wee concerning on the influence of green consuming that applied of consumers and business functions.As regard to the introductory re search problem, on many that study conducted it all agreed that consumers are passing aware on the movement of green consuming of product and service on market. To support that statement, Leonidou, Leonidou and Kvasova (2011) reiterated that consumer are started to be cognizant on green practice of market because of the immediate exist of products or services that are harmonious on environment that leads to severe environment issues. Table 1 awareness about and the importance of green product Awareness about green crossway oftenness (N) Percentage (%) withstand never heard 14 13 A lot 77 71. 3 A little 17 15. The importance of green product YES 97 89. 8 NO 11 10. 2 As for the awareness of the consumers on purchasing green products, Yaacob and Zakaria (2010) study result overwhelmingly more than 70 per cent of respondents claimed that they were highly aware on green products. Only thin proportions of respondents had a little awareness about products-15. 7 per cent. O n the other hand, 13 per cent of them admitted that they never heard about the practice of green consuming. It is excessively the same scenario that observed when the question of green products was raised. dear to 90 per cent of respondents were positive about it, and only 10 per cent claimed green products were of no importance.Table 2 Respondents Source of Awareness to ballpark marketing How did you become aware in green marketing? Frequency (N) Percentage (%) TV 105 48. 61 Radio 14 6. 48 composition 50 23. 5 Magazine 80 37. 04 Books 11 5. 09 Seminar 19 8. 80 stratum Lecture 77 35. 5 Others internet 13 6. 02 Parents 2 0. 93 Friends 3 1. 9 Product Bought 1 0. 46 As shown in the Table 2 consumers get interested or aware on green consuming through the following result of stud of Suplico(2009) picture receiver (48. 61%), magazines (37. 04%), class lectures (35. 65%) and newspapers (23. 15%). Obviously speaking television although has a little expensive but however the important source of information for consumers.Because television reaches extremely large audience as it communicates with sight, sound and motion. Additionally, according to Yaacob and Zakaria (2010) that the green consumerism implies the consumer that is spontaneous to buy products or service with a premium price. In detail, consumers agree that are willing to acquire products or services that are nontoxic, recyclable/reusable/refillable, ozone friendly, energy efficient and causes minimal household waste which implies businesses can use green marketing to promote their products.With regard to the second question, lenity & Yazdanifad (2011) study explicated that consumer on acquiring green products or services believe that the green life is a wear and fitter for present and future generation. It was shown that consumers spending pattern illustrate that they have desire for brands that go green. Thus, in the paper of Raksha & Majidazar (2011) think that green pract ice has significant effect on the brand loyalty of consumers on firms products and services.It was mentioned that the perceptual evaluative and psychological process that contributes the satisfaction of consumers which it shows the product satisfaction and leveraging decision experience of consumers. For further detail, businesses that integrated green ideas in their products or services not only can satisfy the environmental needs of consumers, but also the consumer expectations on the products or services which results to increase of consumer loyalty on product or service.And for the last question, here are some significant implications of the influence of green consuming that is implemented on the consumers and business functions. Nandini & Deshpande (2011) stated in their study that green marketing helps to improve the usage of raw materials of company in manufacturing products which results a much better product quality of firms because of the green chopine that attached in the products. And together with the green contents that exist in the products or services that all the way gives interest to the consumers to acquire the product. Hence, it ncreased the satisfaction of costumers on the product or services of firms that leads into brand loyalty on firms. Similarly, Nandini & Deshpandi explicated being green of market increased and enhances the social responsibility of consumers to protect the environment. People get more get interested on their social responsibility if they see that the global market also concern on the environment. Obviously, that implicate to reducing of the jeopardy of infection exposure of environment. With the help of market and also the responds of the consumers, it may slowly prevent some environmental issues.As for another firms implication, Bukhari (2011) elucidated that doing green of firms give them chance to admission price the new market, increase their profit sustainability, and wassail a competitive advantage ove r the companies which are not totally have-to doe with on the environment. Therefore, after finding the implications of doing green it can be said that its main consequence is the sustainable development clear in the environment and to the market that highlighted the green concept and absolutely to the consumers itself. Figure 1. Implications of putting surface MarketingRetrieved from Nandini and Deshpande (2011) IV. CONCLUSION thou marketing is a tool for protecting the environment for the future generation, it has an impact on consumer decision making on buying products. As what Mercy & Yazdanifad (2011) concluded in their study that consumers want to identify themselves with companies that are green yielding and are willing to pay a premium for a greener life style. Hence, clearly can say it has positive on consumer. However, marketers must find an opportunity to enhance their products performance and strengthen customers loyalty and affirmation a higher price.Bukhari (2011 ) On the other hand, (Ottman, 1998), said that most consumers are sprouts. They buy green products from time to time but are not confused in any environmental activities. Additionally, the use of firms of labelling the green welfare of products are only make consumers more confused about the product or service. Thus, marketers should encourage consumers with appeals to get involved in environmental activities and must have enough knowledge about the use of green products that offered in market.As such, thus green marketing is not just an environmental protection tool but also, a marketing strategy of firms for sustainable development. REFERENCES Bukhari, S. S. (2011). greens Marketing and its impact on consumer behaviour. European diary of Business , 3(4), 375-383 Chang, N, J. , , C, M. (2010). super acid product quality, green corporate image, green customer satisfaction, and green customer loyalty. African diary of Business Management, 4(13), 2836-2844 European Commission. (2 004). Buying green A handbook on environmental public procurement.Belgium Luxembourg Publication. Encyclopedia of Business (2007). immature Marketing (2nded. ). Washington DC. Fuller, Donald A. (1998). sustainable Marketing Managerial-Ecological Issues. USA. SagePublications. Hicks, C. (2009). Its Not unaffixed Buying Green. Retrieved gilded 6, 2012 from http//blog. lohas. com/blog/green-marketing-strategy Horne, R. E (2009). Limits to labels The role of eco labels in the assessment of product sustainability and routes to sustainable consumption. International ledger of Consumer Studies serial online. swear out 2009 33(2)175-182. doi10. 111/j. 1470-6431. 2009. 00752. x Leonidou, L. C. ,Leonidou, C. N. , , O. (2010). Antecedents and outcomes of consumer environmentally friendly attitudes and behaviour. ledger of Marketing Management,26(13/14), 13191344. doi 10. 1080/0267257X. 2010. 523710 Lin, C. , & Ho, Y. (2011). Determinants of Green Practice Adoption for Logistics Companies in China. diary of Business Ethics, 98(1)6783. doi 10. 1007/s10551-010-0535-9 Lipp, B. (2010). Impact of B2B Green Marketing in an increasingly Environmentally ConsciousWorld. Recovered August 8, 2012 from http//www. nvironmentalleader. com/2010/06/14/impact-of-b2b-green-marketing-in-an-increasingly-environmentally-conscious-world/. Makower, J. (2011). Green Marketing Is Over. Lets Move On. Retrieved August 8, 2012 from http//www. greenbiz. com/blog/2011/05/16/green-marketing-over-lets-move? page=full Nandini, P, M. , , M. (2011). A abstract FRAMEWORK ON gullible MARKETING- A TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. International Journal Of Sales And Marketing Management, 1(1), 1-16 National Consumer Council (2002). Green consuming. London Ottman, J. (2011).The New Rules of Green Marketing Strategies, Tools, and Inspiration for Sustainable bluring. United terra firma Greenleaf Publishing. Ottman, Jacquelyn A. (1998). Green Marketing Challenges and Opportunities for the New Marketing A ge. USA. NTC Business Books. ROMERO, P. (2008). Beware of green marketing, warns Greenpeace exec. Retrieved August 6, 2012 from http//www. abs-cbnnews. com/special-report/09/16/08/beware-green-marketing-warns-greenpeace-exec Suplico, L. T (2009). IMPACT OF GREEN MARKETING ON THE STUDENTS PURCHASE DECISION. Journal Of International Business Research, 871-88.Tan, B. C, & Y, P. F. (2012). What Drives Green restaurant Patronage Intention? International Journal of Business , 7(2), 215-223. doi10. 5539/ijbm. v7n2p215 Smith, E. E. , & Perks, S. (2010). A perceptual study of the impact of green practice implementation on the business functions. southern African Business Review, 14(3) Tantawi, P. , Shaughnessy, N. , Gad, K. , , M, A, S. (2009). Green thought of Consumers in a Developing hoidenish A Study of Egyptian Consumers. contemporaneous Management Research, 5 (1), 29-50 Yazdanifard, R. , , I. E. (2011).The impact of Green Marketing on Customer satisfaction and Environmental safety . International Conference on Computer Communication and Management, 5, 637-641 Yaacob, M. R. , , A. (2010). CUSTOMERS AWARENESS, PERCEPTION AND proximo PROSPECTS OF GREEN PRODUCTS IN PAHANG, MALAYSIA. The Journal of Commerce, 3(2), Rakhsha, R. , , M. (2011). military rank of Effectiveness Of green Marketing jumble on Consumer Satisfaction and Loyalty (Case Study The East AzarbaijanPegah Dairy Company in Tabriz, Iran). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 10 (6) 755-763APPENDIX A (Date) Dear Respondents, Good day I am student from Feu Makati taking up Bachelor of Science Administration major in Marketing Management. As a business student, I am equied to spell an academic research in our Communication Arts II. Thus, I am now conducting a research about A Study on the Impact of Green Marketing on Purchasing conclusion as Perceived by youth Professionals on Makati City The goal of this study is to examine and analyse the impact of the effectiveness of green marketing on the decision making of purchasing of consumers.This survey will concentrate to the awareness of the consumers on Makati City on the eco-friendly practice of business functions. Likewise, this will also analyse the behaviour of consumers on the responds to the green practice of businesses. The responses will be a big help to further examine and re inform the impact of green practice on the customer satisfaction and businesses functions. In that matter, I would like to request to you to fill out the following survey questionnaire and I would be welcome if you could return the absolute questionnaire as in short as possible.Thank you for your kindly cooperation, time and understanding. Sincerely, Ms. Angel Joy S. Mandigal APPENDIX B surveil Questionnaire Name (optional)________________Age__________ Gender ____Male ____FemaleProfession_______________ Direction appealing put a check mark (? ) in each statement that reflects if you are SA- Strongly AgreeAD- Agree/ take issueSD- Strongly Di sagree A- Agree D- Disagree SA A AD D SD 1.I am aware of green marketing practice. 2. I choose/ purchase products that are eco-friendly. 3. My friends, the media and the marketers influenced me of consuming green products. 4. I buy or consumed green products or services because of the env ironment issues. 5.Everytime I purchase products or services, I always consider its benefit to environment. 6. I believe that green products or services have a high quality. 7. Even though I consumed green products or services in market, it excuse meets my expectations and satisfactions as consumer on product. 8.I am still willing to buy green products or services despite of its higher or expensive price. 9. I believe that purchasing green products or services is a right thing to do. 10. Everytime I purchased green products or services I tactual sensation that I contribute to the environmental protection and sustainab le development. 11.I prefer buying or consuming eco-friendly products or services than non-green. 12. I am willing to recommend to the people around me the practice of purchasing green products or services. 13. I believe that business functions should adapt the concept of green marketing. 14. Consumers should practice the green consuming of products or services. 15. I do believe that green marketing really affects my purchasing decision on consuming products or services. 16. Green practice or consuming eco-friendly products or services of consumers are the best way to prevent environmental issue problem concerned. 17.Government should lead promoting the usage and producing of eco-friendly products or services among consumers and business functions. Sustainable Development Customer Brand Loyalty Satisfaction Reduce risk of exposure of environment improve Product Quality ? uw? iiIKLTUj? oaOA? A? A? A? A? A? kXH9hah uCJOJQJaJhKhu5? CJOJQJaJ$hRwihCCJOJQJaJmHsH$hRwihnxiCJOJQJaJmHsH$hRwihRwiCJOJQJaJmHsH$hRwihu-CJOJQJaJmHsHhRwihnxiCJOJQJaJSocial Responsibility Improved Raw Material Usage