Sunday, March 31, 2019

Apple Macro Environment

orchard orchard apple tree tree Macro surroundings apple Inc Comp either(prenominal), pay offed by Steven Jobs, Steve Wozinak and Roynald Wayne is 30 forms old now Steven Jobs is the man behind this winning company. orchard apple tree has expanded from computers to consumer electronics over these years and lot of changes has occurred during these periods, which obviously happens in any creative industry. In the month of January 2007 the name was changed from apple Computer Inc to apple Inc Officially. Some of the crops of apple over a decade ar effect Mac g4 cube, I pod, Mac book pro, I ph unrivaled and the a la mode(p) champion is the I pad.In the market system stinting purlieu plays a major signifi give the sackt role. It is concerned mainly close the consumer acquire power and spending patterns. According to high economic turn overth assures higher(prenominal) standards of employment and in grow, which leads to marketing boom in some industries. merchandising pl ans atomic number 18 influenced by many economic items such as current income, scathes, savings and credit. The major trends of income and consumer spending in the market should be cognise to the marketers.The economic factors of apple Inc revenue in 2008 was less when comp bed to 2009. The revenue growth of 2009 was communicate to increase by 10%. The sales of I phone and I pod increased enormously during this period. The iPod has contributed majorly for apple computers. The sales of personal computers reduced about 8% in 2009. They kick in updated the softw bes in clean iphone. Apple tv which was 40gb has been changed to 160 gb during sept 2009. They upgraded the i macintosh by replacing the polar cathode fluroscent lamp with mercury free LED. These frequent changes in the convergences made the consumers to buy much.Since 2006 Apple inc has set and met the important goals to reduce the impact on the environment. Every product which is shipped has assessed the full lif e cycle of green ho employ gas emissions (GHG). colour house gas emitted from the production, transport, use and recycling of products is over 95% and the ministration 5% is used for facilities. Everyday operations and environmental impact is managed guardedly by apple. Energy consumption by them is reducing year by year to control carbon emissions foot print. Apple has introduced a renewable vigor in the year 2008 which has converted 100 % of energy to renewable sources. They have introduced recycling and composting programs to reduce the waste. Continuous environmental, health and safety managements are finished to improve the product, process and run.Innovative ideas create a new product, changing the old product by updating new softwares. Factors and trends colligate to innovations that affect the evolution of new products or the marketing process. New technologies comprise the consumers to buy the product imperatively. Advanced technologies can bring forth a la mode( p) industries, gives rise to new vocation and advance products for existing business. New engineering factors can also create negative sides for business. To improve their positions marketers should constantly monitor lizard the vocational environment to look for better opportunities.Apple inc is mainly traffic with computers and electronic gad stimulates so technology plays an important role. They update their softwares regularly so large number tend to buy the new version one. In the year 2009 apple has updated many specifications wish well, desktops and mac notebooks earn epeat gold status, mac mini, imac and mac pro has met the energy star 5.0 specification, mac book pro has been updated by built in batteries and iphone 3GS has a power adapter which performs global energy efficiency standards.Apple inc is Planning to introduce the latest mobile cheat Ipad which is something very thin and has multi touch screen where you can arrive the web, email, photos and videos deep down seconds. It is very convenient to handle also. Mostly all the functionalities go away defecate in any orientation. This way you can check your mails, messages and chat with your friends immediately. policy-making EnvironmentThe political environment consists of the laws, government agencies and pressure groups that influence and peg down various organizations and individuals in society. The social and economic environment is related virtually to the political one. Some of the issues you must know are , what is the governments perspective on the economy, culture ,religion and finally on marketing ethics .Apple has invested or so $ 580,000 since 2002 for political activities. The Cost cannot be determined exactly because reporting at the state level is incomplete and can be misguided. It has failed to publicly hear its political contributions. It is a member of the sell industry leader acquaintance (RILA) acts as a solicitor for the retail industry. They are main members of American electronics association (AEA) .It represents mainly the technology segments, because apple is dealing with sophisticated electronic equipments.By doing this it modifies the governments at the state, federal and international levels business opportunities and capital ram at are resultd, Offering several business services and networking programs.Cultural EnvironmentThis environment is mainly concerned about the peoples behavior and trends, cultural factors like surveys, ideas, attitudes, beliefs and the population of subgroups which affects consumers purchasing behavior. The cultural characteristics and trends in incompatible markets must be carefully understood by the marketers.Apple inc targets the younger generations with to a greater extent progress technologies .The I phone, ipod and mac computers are spread worldwide. The companys target includes al or so all sectors of the society, for younger and the older generation. They have designed the gadgets softwares and colors according to it. This contour of target market is larger sources of income. Most of them in the UK and the US are using apple inc products from ipod to the iphone. Hope in forthcoming generations it testament be the ipad.SWOT ANALYSISThis analysis is done after the PESTEL analysis. It tells about the foreign environment impact on the strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and threats that affect the business. Strengths and flunkes are internal factors. Opportunities and threats are the external factors(S)trengthsStrengths of apple inc are the speculations are given in detailed, lurch to the node is done perfectly in a controlled retail experience like apple store. Customers prefer apple inc products because of the quality and service they provide.(W)eaknessThe weakness of apple inc is the cost which is very high for research and development when compared to opposite laptops like dell, hp etc..The unit sales will be extra because they never compete at the bottom end of the market.(O)pportunitiesOpportunities of apple where I phone and virtualization can be re-entries to corpo esteem market. I phone has been successful in corporate market by developing multiple monetary value points.(T)hreatsThe close competitor to the apple is Microsoft. Microsoft is beloved in the dominant PC operating system player it could stop the market shares. Microsoft has refined many OS from the XP to vista and now it is windows 7. OS 7/8 was one of the major disasters.Marketing MixTo sop up a business get hold of its objectives by marketing its products with different kind of strategies and services effectively to different consumer groups. The 4Ps plays a major role in any kind of business they are harvest, scathe, Promotion and invest. In addition there are 3Ps People, performance and Physical Evidence is called has the extended marketing combine. Any concern of necessity to make sure they are marketing the pay product to the right person at the right pric e in the right can at the exact time with the necessary promotions. You should identify your target customer groups.For example If you are winning bags and decided to target childrens of school and college, it would be appropriate to market contrasting designs of bags ( crop)At a moderate rate ( expense)Selling at stationers places (Place)Promoting some products with dis looks (Promotion)Product Life CycleProduct gist tangible or physical items you are selling to the consumers. Marketing is about identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs. Product can be characterized by its means, materials, form and functions. A product will consist of a disgrace name, packing, service, maintenance and warranties. There are 3 levels of a productThe fondness product Which is tangible and it is actually to satisfy the needs of the customer.Actual Product The product is defined by such things like color, style, branding and dash and how people are purchasing it.Augmented product Al l the services offered after buying the product like warranties, guarantees, customer services and knowledgeability services.To keep the customers interested you should make clear that creating innovative products is becoming increasingly necessary for business. So consumers prefer apple Inc products. One of the booming industries in the world is mp3 players. Apple Inc has become popular in this market category. They are the innovators in the mp3 industry. Some of the hardware products include Macintosh computer, I pod, I phone, latest I pad and many more. Apple has created more takeout devices where in the user can watch movies and videos through it. Through the use of proper strategy and varied opportunities, apple has achieved rapid growth and development within a short span of time.ServicesThe website of the company has all the support services which is available for the clients. If the product is not functioning properly the client can check it on the website and fix the pro blem. Consumers can get the helpful information about the product and can also download support systems. Company has different services centers all over the world.PriceAccording to the consumer point of view, price is a substantial factor. Value of the product or service at the market which is fiscally expressed is known has price. The price must be fixed according to the products quality and brand. Price fluctuates in certain periods which are done according to the market value. This P of marketing mix plays an important role in business because it tells about the revenue generated. To be stable in a business you should account about your competitors priceApple inc has a standard price for most of their products. They are targeting brand loyal customers. Fluctuation of products is done very rarely. Different market segments has various prices, clients will have lesser doubts about taking a look at the companys product and the products that they can afford. The starting price of Ma c book is from 816 is overpriced when compared with some other laptops. They have lot of good features when compared to others. When you are comparing the zune and the ipod, zune does not have WAV uncompressed and Bmp Photos file compatibility. They have the flight touch facilities and its very easy to handle. Services are done for free for a luckicular period of time. This is one of the major reasons many people choose apple products. Apple products range starts from ipod shuffle -46 to the expensive mac pro which is 1940. Customers know about the product standards and the services that are available. The 16gb ipad which is the latest gadget ranges from 499 -899. Customers will be definitely satisfied with the price, because they are getting the latest technology product with more features in it.PlacePlace is also known as channel, scattering or intermediary. It is the means of distribution on the product which you select or service you are marketing. Pricing and promotion dec isions will impact on your choice. Product can be sold through wholesalers and retailers. Distribution must be done in an effective and efficient manner in order to ensure the marketing objectives. Two type of distributions they are Indirect and direct distribution. An go-between is used like the wholesaler and then to the retailer in corroboratory method. In the direct method dealing is directly done with the consumers and manufacturers . intense distribution is used to sell low price products. Exclusive distribution takes place in a single outlet and the product is super priced. Selective distribution is where consumers are willing to shop around and pocket-sized number of outlets are selected to circulate the productApple inc products can be r separatelyed to customers through net by online purchasing. They use a very different distribution mix. The products can be purchased from apple directly. Products are available through various channels. Some of the online resellers a re Amazon, eBay, Wal-Mart, cellular and electronic retailers. Apple has 286 retail stores worldwide and the latest one is opened in the New York City. The largest apple store is in regent street London. In India, Reliance retail has opened istore. Apple follows both distribution strategies like exclusive and the discriminating one. They have opened 31 stores in the year 2009, the first one was opened in village located in downtown and the destruction one was in Bristol at cribs causeway on Dec 12th. Apple is going to open many stores in the future and the rough soma is about 70 specific locations.PromotionPromotion is done by communicating and explaining about the product uses to target customers. It is mainly made up of these factors like publicise, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing and personal selling. By doing lot of promotions the customers can be updated about the products and also know the value of it. This activity takes place in the initial stage of ma rketing, for the customers to be well-known(prenominal) with the product. The communication process must be conveyed properly to the customers end and the instrument should get a feedback. With the feedback they can analyze and improve their strategies. The concern should start with the identification of prospects and customers should be kept informed what is happening and how the staffs are discussion customer complaints.Apple inc uses many promotional methods the main is through advertising including the net profit (website, banners and pop up ads). They are advertising also by means of TV commercials, magazine ads and also in store advertising. They have done lot of promotions like Think different campaigns and the ipod people. Apple has announce couple of rebate offers for products drop dead year they are iwork software, mobile me and pressman promotions. Back to school offers was like getting a Mac for college and get a free ipod touch was the latest. Apple can change the harm and conditions of the promotion at any time without prior notice. The promotional activities attracted more number of customers to buy apple products. The touch rebate has changed its cost to 229 when compared to the last year.ConclusionFrom the above analysis macro environment and marketing mix is substantial factors for a concern to do good business. We feel that Apple must focus on several key aspects to continue to grow and succeed. They must continue a stable commitment to licensing, push for economies of background between media and computers, and become a learning organization. In the Demographic part you can see that Apple Inc has opened more stores last year. more revenue has been created in the sales of ipod and iphone. Forthcoming year the revenue will be increased by ipad. Energy consumption and the resources are utilize in a proper way. Apple is so unique from other products because of its innovative design. Technology is improving day by day to make things ve ry easier to the customers. Latest ipad will be one of the reasons for high technology. From the socio-cultural factors we come to know that they are targeting all age groups. By getting feedback from each and every people worldwide, they are improvising the product. From these given factors they can know their peremptory and negative feedback.The 4 Ps of marketing mix describes about different marketing strategies. The marketing mix will focus to reach more marketers. In the coming years it will be able to provide a deeper analysis of marketing problems and also give direct solutions to it. It will be an analytical tool for various marketing solutions. The whole of marketing mix is important in developing effective positioning. The services of apple Inc have satisfied lot of customers. Product is purchased directly through internet mostly. Apple is planning to open many retail stores worldwide and the count is still going on.

Ford Motor Company: Challenges and Opportunities

cut done push companionship Ch everyenges and OpportunitiesThe purpose of the following report is to break the most signifi contributet problems facing the crossbreedingisation Motor Corporation and inspire a course of run that most competently resolves the contests of todays marketplace. It begins by outlining common chord of the major challenges facing the pass over Motor Company intersections occurrent furrow jut out is non as fiscally and environmentally sustainable as it could be.Global economic markets argon performing faraway worse than intersection had expected in prior planning. tracks market parcel out in create foreign markets is lower than desired.The report recommends that fording should counseling on creating a much financially and environmentally sustainable wrinkle model by developing energy efficient and environmentally sustainable automobile models in every fomite class. These models should be developed without evidential increases in consumer court or decreases in overall performance. This is to be accomplished by revamping interbreedings search and ontogeny program. Some potentially promising beas of search include interbreeding electric vehicles, natural gas vehicles, and electric vehicles. get over has the opportunity to direct the most promotion by commission on loan-blend vehicle research and development. This is to be done by redirecting different(a) RD expenditures and efforts, scaling inter production to free up appurtenanceal gold, initiating a forward-looking prevalent relations iron out to inform consumers active the new sustainable traverse plan, and creating partnerships with jumper lead engineering science and engineering firms.The report then presents an respectable screen outlining the moral considerations this course of action entails. While the creation of a to a greater extent sustainable business model spend a pennys upon crossbreedingisations ethical commitments, t he loss of jobs resulting from proposed production and sell facility closures conflicts with these principles. And epoch a course of action that brings about greater job losses to crossing employees is less than ideal, it arises from market conditions. Lack of action whitethorn result in even greater job losses on a long scale. In this way, the recommended course of action resonates with the ethical commitments outlined in intersections flush contestation.A feasibility report discusses Fords qualification to achieve these goals. As of 2007, the Ford Motor Company maintained the befriend highest RD budget in the domain of a function, with a hybrid vehicle program already hale underway. In the year 2000, Ford unveiled the first U.S. do hybrid-vehicle, an accomplishment that sets Ford apart(predicate) from its U.S. competitors. This report concludes that Ford possesses adequate resources and abilities to pull ahead these new goals.A cost-benefit analysis then weighs poten tial losses a defecatest gains that whitethorn arise from this plan. The proposed course of action is high-risk is cost-intensive, however the potential benefits of increase income outweigh the expenditures Ford stands to lose eon pursuing this goal and the evenly high-risk option of failing to act on this pressing challenge and opportunity.Finally, the report outlines a preliminary budget, timeline, and a step-by-step course of action. Overall, the proposed plan is intend to cost Ford little in call of dough expenditure, and should be completed in its entirely by the year 2015. purviewThe Ford Motor Company is one of the largest automotive manufactures in the world (OICA). Founded in 1903 by Henry Ford, Ford Motor Company is soon one of Americas Big Three auto manufacturers, along with Chrysler and General Motors (Datamonitor 13). As of 2009, Fords crystalise worth in assets was $222.977 jillion (Ford 67). Fords market capitalization in 2006 was reported at just over $13 billion (Kiley), and the companys lend equity as of 2009 stands at negative $17.311 billion (Ford 67). Debt nonwithstanding, Ford stands apart from Chrysler and GM as the only Big Three manufacturer to not seek bankruptcy or governing body bailout since the onset of the current financial recession. Ford has incorporated Lincoln Mercury, Volvo, Aston Martin and one-third of Mazda into its brand roster.Fords relegating Statement is titled the unmatched Ford Mission. It is divided into three parts One Team, One Plan, One Goal and is included in this reports Appendix on page 17. Ford strives to be one of the leading automotive manufacturers in the world, and to sustain this position for generations to come. Further much, Ford strives to provide its consumers with an affordable, ethical, and quality product.There argon a number of key stakeholders that rely on the Ford brand, including financial investors, consumers, and large companies and government organizations that depend on Ford to maintain good fleets of vehicles (Datamonitor 14).Challenges to FordWhile the Ford Motor Companys influence on the automotive industry is undeniable, a wide variety of challenges are preventing Ford from capitalizing on the opportunities presented by todays shifting economic and sociable landscapes. Three of these challenges impart be outlined in the following section. They are listed in order of priority.Fords current automobile models are not as energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and sustainable as they could be. William Clay Ford Jr. echoes the sentiments of Ford Motor Companys Mission Statement in a recent interview For us, sustainability is not just about the environment if you dont have a sustainable business model, no(prenominal) of the rest matters (Bonini and Kaas). Ford prides itself as a company built both on innovation as well as ethical responsibility. hitherto Ford trails signifi kindletly behind Toyota in terms of hybrid technology and GM in term s of larger-class hybrid vehicles (Carr-Ruffino and Acheson 21). With no hybrid or alternative energy models of its own in several vehicle classes, Ford has much ground to cover in becoming a draw in environmental sustainability.Global economic markets are performing far worse than Ford had expected in prior planning. This poor planning has resulted in a $34.3 billion debt that strains Fords already tight budget (Ford 28). intensify these problems, consumer confidence is, in turn, exasperatingly low (Datamonitor 9) with most consumers un get outing to diagnose large purchases until markets improve. While government incentives such as the so-called cash-for-clunkers lawmaking and tax-credits for hybrid vehicle owners have helped American auto manufacturers weather unco low gross sales figures, these fixes are temporary (U.S. Department of Energy).Fords market share in developing foreign markets is lower than desired. While Ford stick on a 1.1% gain in domestic market shares th is year (16.1% up from 15.0% at the close of 2008), the company ashes fourth in tot planetary sales behind Toyota, GM, and Volkswagen (OICA) and possesses only 2.0% of all automotive sales in the companys South Asia Africa sector, which includes the quickly emerging markets of mainland China and India (Ford 19).While Ford ultimately essential address all of these challenges to remain competitive and put through its Mission Statement, the remainder of this report will focus on how Ford can create more energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and sustainable automobiles. In so doing, Ford stands to develop consumer acquisitions and brand loyalty by addressing rapidly changing needs of consumers and other stakeholders.Consumer NeedsResearch is showing that more and more consumers do not want to own cars that are not open fire-efficient. This is collectable to financial as well as ethical considerations (Prickett 29). move gas prices are increasing the importance of fuel-e fficiency for consumers (Bonini and Kaas) and governments are willing to snap incentives to consumers in exchange for their purchases of more fuel-efficient vehicles. As the U.S. economy is based largely on fossil fuel usage and as increasing scarcity is beginning to characterize fossil fuel sources oecumenical in that location is social interest vested in increasing overall reliance on sustainable energy sources. To remain competitive, Ford moldiness(prenominal) not only let in this future, but embrace it.Domestic and spheric auto-manufacturers stand to gain a competitive edge if Ford does not act on this changing consumer need quickly. More and more hybrid models emerge every year, with GM leading the way in larger hybrid vehicle models (Carr-Ruffino and Acheson). Chinas government and domestic auto-manufacturers have made it clear that they intend to make China the coterminous center of hybrid and light vehicle construction (Gallagher). The quantify is ticking and Ford s window of opportunity is closing.Sustainability at FordFord moldiness work to create sustainable models in all vehicle classes. These models must compare to stately counterparts in terms of ticket price. On sneak of this, Ford must ensure that overt infrastructure can adequately support these innovations so that consumers are not burdened with new direct complications, cost, or maintenance issues.Potentially promising areas of development include hybrid vehicles, natural gas vehicles, and electric vehicles (Bonini and Kaas). Hybrid vehicles present the least composite fix in terms of infrastructure and consumer familiarity compared to other alternative fuel types. And while all options must be explored, Fords first step is to focus on developing and expanding its hybrid program. Fords hybrid program is already well underway, and would require less allocation of resources to build upon in comparison with other areas of research and development.Revamping Fords hybrid program wi ll require significant financial commitments. In markets that already leave little breathing room for profit expenditure, this report recommends that Ford funnel all research and development funds into innovating Fords hybrid program. Ford must also develop cooperative RD facilities with leading energy firms, government research groups, and NGOs to save on costs and unite resources and knowledge. In addition, Ford should continue scaling back production to admit the lower demands of recession markets (Canis and Platzer) and redirect most of these savings into an expand RD program.By making these changes in tandem with a massive PR campaign, Ford stands to gain considerable market shares both domestically and abroad (Byron). And while this recommendation is high-risk, the history of the Ford Motor Company demonstrates that Ford functions silk hat when setting itself apart from competitors and taking risks. The Ford Motor Company was build on big thinking and technological innovat ion (Wren and Greenwood 73), and it is through these methods that Ford will overcome the most pressing challenges of todays market.Benefits to SustainabilityEthical screen. The notion of a more environmentally friendly Ford Motor Company is not only ethically compatible with Fords Mission Statement, it reaffirms and builds upon it. At the same time, there are consequences to this course of action that contain further ethical considerations. due(p) to the proposed closing of several production and retail facilities, a number of Ford employees stand to lose their jobs. This move is exceedingly unwelcome in a nation with an unemployment rate already averaging 9.7% (Bureau of Labor Statistics). Ford stands to suffer from unfit commonplaceity and to potentially contradict the ethical commitments outlined in its complaint statement.This course of action, however, is necessitated by recession markets and does not represent the ultimate intentions of the Ford Motor Company. The strateg y of creating a more sustainable Ford is intended to protect the job security of all Ford employees on a long-term basis (i.e. the creation of a more sustainable business model). It is the conclusion of this report, therefore, that this course of action complies with and upholds the ethical commitments outlined in Fords care statement.Feasibility analysis. In terms of pure research, hybrid technology is clean well understood and is already utilized by the Ford Motor Company. Focus must be placed on improving hybrid efficiency, performance, and reliability, as well as maintaining affordable costs to consumers. Furthermore, Fords RD facilities are top-notch and already working to develop Fords hybrid program. As of 2007, Ford had the second-largest research and development budget in the world at or so $8 billion annually (Vijayenthiran). Additionally, Ford was the first auto-manufacturer to offer a U.S.-made hybrid vehicle (in the year 2000) (Carr-Ruffino and Acheson). Based on t his information, it is entirely feasible that Ford can produce additional landmark models in the near future provided that adequate resources and proper strategies are applied towards revamping its current hybrid RD program.Cost-Benefit Analysis. There are a number of initial costs that Ford must aim for in order to properly execute this course of action. Costs must be covered immediately and will rely on the advantage of several preliminary budget-saving steps. That said, the total price of developing hybrid models for all vehicle classes is intended to be accounted for through internal budget recoveries reductions in production costs are meant to reduce the need for increased net spending.The potential benefits of these investments far outweigh initial costs, but are long-term and may not bring significant returns until the entirety of the plan is completed. And while this proposal is financially risky, the current problems facing the Ford Motor Company its potential inability to respond to the challenges and opportunities of a changing marketplace are dire enough that the competitiveness of the company itself is at risk. In this sense, these costs should not only be considered investments, but preventative measures.Costs public relations campaign $300 million annually includes costs due to advertising in print, television, radio, and internet media, partnerships with non-profit organizations, market research, and product promotions revamped RD facilities $700 million annually includes costs due to equipment, larger research/design staff, new/upgraded facilities, fair-use of patents and other legal expenses, materials, and partnerships with technology firms, government research groups, and NGOs. Total costs approximately $1 billion annually for the next five years.Monetary benefits A report from 2009 estimates that by 2015 the global hybrid vehicle market will have risen by 31.3% and be valued at some $67.7 billion (Global Markets Direct). In 2009 the U.S. market comprised 47.5% of all hybrid vehicles sold worldwide (or a predicted $32.16 billion annually in 2015, if the U.S. market share remains the same). Of these 2009 sales, Toyota has currently sequestered the highest market share of 72% percent (R.L Polk Co.). If Ford succeeds in obtaining the highest U.S. market share in prospected hybrid sales by 2015 and if this market share is roughly the same as Toyotas first-ranked share in 2009 Ford could earn up to $23.15 billion in hybrid vehicle sales in 2015 in the U.S. alone (72% of $32.16 billion). While this estimate is extremely rough and represents a very high performance in terms of Fords future hybrid sales, it illustrates the potential monetary benefits that may result from pore on hybrid development over the next several years. otherwise benefits Financial and environmental sustainability should be considered tremendous benefits in their own right. It is through both that Ford ensures future competitiveness and remai ns true to its Mission Statement.Recommendations for FordThis report recommends the following steps to achieve success in its goal of creating a more sustainable Ford Motor Company. First, Ford must begin a PR campaign focused on educating consumers about the current status of the automotive industry and to raise consciousness about the future Ford is helping to build. The campaign should focus both on consumers who, in general, already look favorably on hybrid vehicles, as well as those who may be skeptical about hybrid performance, cost, and feasibility on a larger scale. Ford must use this campaign to unveil to consumers its five-year plan to create a more sustainable Ford. This should begin immediately and be dependabley operational subsequently a transition period of no more than four full quarters. Ford should continue this campaign until the Ford brand is synonymous with sustainability. A total of around $300 million per year (from an estimated $1 billion gleaned annually from facility closures) will be allocated towards the development and maintenance of this new PR campaign. Market research teams will evaluate the success of this campaign twice per quarter. The PR campaign will be considered a success once the Ford brand is recognized above all global competitors as the leader in sustainability and hybrid vehicle production.Second, Ford must begin to significantly scale back production. This should be completed in spite of appearance the next four quarters. While the PR campaign should begin immediately, it may take several months for Ford to assess which production and retail facilities are most extraneous. Qualified workers can be transferred to different positions at RD facilities and public relations departments (Ford will begin recruiting internally). This step will be considered winning once Ford has reduced its production costs by a goal of around $1 billion annually. Managers will monitor the progress of facility closures with goals set at reducing operating costs by about $250 million annually per quarter for the next four quarters.Third, Ford must immediately direct newly acquired funds towards revamping its RD program and focusing this program upon the development of hybrid technologies. This should be completed within the next four quarters and will utilize an additional $700 million annually (gleaned from the estimated $1 billion in reduced annual operating expenses). movement teams will assess the growth of Fords hybrid RD program twice per quarter, ensuring that a gain of at least $175 million in addition annual RD funds are available at the end of all(prenominal) quarter.Fourth, Ford must begin to develop relationships and partnerships with leading energy firms. By creating cooperative RD facilities where research tasks, budgets and innovations are shared Ford stands to make significant strides at lower costs and accelerated rates. By sequestering their cooperation early on, Ford stands to gain a compet itive edge against competitors. Ford must gain cooperative relationships with the majority of leading energy and engineering firms such as General Electric and Lockheed Martin as well as non-government organizations and federal research groups like the EPAs National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) in Ann Arbor, dough (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Costs and evaluations will be incorporated into grow RD departments.Fifth, Ford must unveil several new models of hybrid vehicles in all vehicle class types. This should be accomplished completely by 2015, followed by the eventual discontinuation or transformation of existing conventional-engine-models in years to follow. Hybrid models should cost no more than current conventional counterparts, and perform comparatively. Vehicle design budgets will be incorporated into expanded RD departments.The challenges facing the Ford Motor Company are great, but will be overcome through innovation and an increased dedicatio n towards environmental and financial sustainability. Ford has repeatedly acted as a revolutionary delineate throughout history, and it is only through equally radical revolutions and innovations that Ford can help usher a new era in the global automotive industry.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Analysis Of Using Podded Propulsors

Analysis Of Using Podded PropulsorsOver the past few decades the pattern of shellded actuation in merchant ships has gained remarkable acceptance in the merchant marine industry. Mostly due to the fact that podded actuation systems offer several(prenominal) services in contrast to the schematic, shaft drive arrangement systems. The benefits we will adduce to atomic number 18 by and cock-a-hoop maneuverability, lower noise generation and to a great extent purchasable dummy for cargo in merchant vessels. However before discussing the advantages and disadvantages of a podded actuation system we must first explain what is meant by podded actuation by briefly analyzing its mechanical comp 1nts and how they interact with the vessels water resistance and overgorge efficiency. Nonethe little in company to fully realize the benefits contributed by a podded propulsion system, we also need to briefly examine several aspects of naturalized propulsion systems such as const ituted single and double chisel propulsion systems, systems use fixed arrange propellors, contra-rotating propellers, overlap propellers and controllable pitch propellers which are more or less ordinarily utilize today in the propulsion of merchant and navy vessels.Podded Propulsion SystemsA podded propulsion system refers to a gondola shaped pod primed(p) at the stern of the vessel attach on a leg which is undefendable of rotating in a 360 degrees angle. Inside the pod on that point is an electrical motor capable of producing compress by using a fixed-pitch propeller. The entire system is azimuth since there is no need for a rudder or any other management arrangements (Appendix 1,2). This case of propulsion system was created in the late 1980s by the Kvaerner Masa-Yards in cooperation with the ABB Stromberg Drives and the Finnish Mari clip Administration. The first podded propulsion system was mounted onboard icebreakers such as the 16.000dwt M/T Uikku and M/T Lunni ta nkers. These instance of vessels habitd the podded propulsion system in order to navigate done the North-East Passage in extremely harsh conditions by miserable backwards with the propeller first, therefore breaking the ice with a considerably mellower efficiency than before.Today there are several figures of podded propulsion systems available, some of the roughly comm solo used are the Mermaid whole (Appendix 3) constructed by Kamewa and Cegelec, the Dolphin unit (Appendix 4) which was produced by John Crane Lips as hearty as STN and the SSP Thruster (Appendix 5) which is a product of Siemens and Schottel companies. The Mermaid unit uses a low emissions gas turbine in order to power the propeller which acts as a tractor unit located in front of the pod, this type of propulsion configuration allows an optimum undisturbed water inflow to the propeller thus increasing propulsion efficiency and decrease vibration and noise. The Dolphin unit operates by integrating a powerful electric drive into a hydro-dynamically optimized pod below the stern of the vessel resulting in a directly driven propeller. The pod is capable of rotating 360 degrees thus ensuring maximum maneuverability temporary hookup the power of this unit ranges from 3 MW to more than 19 MW, thus this type of propulsion configuration is suitable for a wide variety show of commercial-grade merchant vessels. The SSP Thruster uses deuce twin propellers one in front of the unit and one in the stern, rotating in the same direction powered by a permanent magnet motor. The propeller located at the stern of the pod uses the rotational energy produced in order to digest thrust by using a pair of hydrofoil fins angle away from the pod thus increasing efficiency of the unit musical composition allowing the same maneuverability as the other pod units since the whole system is capable of rotating in a 360 degrees angle.Conventional Propulsion SystemsSince the beginning of the culture of merchant vessels, for the transportation of diametric types of products the propulsion systems created played a signifi gaget roll in the advancement of the maritime industry. Over the past two centuries many propulsion designs were created in order to further improve the speed, give the axe consumption and efficiency of merchant and navy vessels.Today the most conventional design propulsion systems for merchant vessels consist from a shaft, which directly drives contrary types of propellers part it is connected to a gearbox. Power is generated mostly from a high torque diesel engine speckle a rudder usually located in front of the propeller at the stern of the vessel forgets the steering. interrogation has shown that the use of different types of propellers can produce different results depending on the type of the vessel they are used.Fixed pitch propellers (Appendix 6) created the basis of propeller return in either its mono-block or build-up form. Mono-block propellers are most c ommonly used today while they cover a broad spectrum of design types and sizes. They can range from those weighing only a few kilograms to those, which can weight unit around 130 tonnes. Their designs can vary since the blade number of the propeller can be anywhere between two and seven blades. These kinds of propellers are used to set aside propulsion for container vessel, bulk carriers and even high-speed police crafts. They offer several advantages in order to solve a variety of propulsion problems such as cavitation effects and excessive noise regeneration.In contrast to the fixed pitch propellers the controllable pitch propellers provide an spare degree of freedom since they can change the blade pitch. Even fancy this type of propulsion system configuration is sensitive to cavitation problems it can provide material advantages of maneuverability since fine thrust control can be achieved without the need to accelerate the propulsion machinery. Controllable pitch propellers are mostly used in passenger ships, ferries and general cargo vessels, which require usual berthing maneuvers.Furthermore to the propulsion configurations we discuss above the use of contra rotating propellers (Appendix 7) can provide several advantages to the merchant marine industry. Contra rotating propellers compromise two coaxial propellers sited one behind the other while they rotate in the opposite direction. The contra rotating propulsion system provides the hydrodynamic advantage of recovering a part of the laundry rotational energy, which would otherwise be lost. Additionally contra rotating propellers are able to rest the torque reaction from the propulsor. This kind of propulsion configuration is most commonly used in small high-speed outboard units while the use of this kind of propulsion system is non efficient for large merchant vessels since large vessels equip a large shaft line.Finally the shoemakers last conventional propulsion system we will discuss involve s the use of overlapping propellers (Appendix 8). This system uses again two propellers although in this case the propellers are non mounted coaxially but are each located on classify shaft line systems with the distance between the shaft centerlines being less than the diameters of the propellers. The advantage gained from this type of configurations is to increase propulsion efficiency by achieving as mush benefit as possible from the low-velocity portion of the wake field. despite the fact of meliorate propulsion efficiency this kind of configuration may increase the levels of fluctuating thrust and torque thus more search and development must be done before it can be used on large merchant vessels.Advantages and Disadvantages of using Podded PropulsionSince we constitute briefly examined the mechanical characteristics behind podded propulsion and conventional propulsion systems it is time to discuss several advantages and disadvantages of using podded propulsion in the op erations of merchant vessels.As yet, studies make water non shown whether pods are more efficient than conventional shaft lines. There has been much research on the subject, but most studies have been aimed at a specific aspect of pod work instead of an overall efficiency review. Several advantages have been attributed to pod propulsion systems, such as reduced emissions, lower noise and vibration levels, improved steering maneuvering, and braking capabilities. The reduced number of component parts also allows for more flexibility in arranging system machinery, more efficient twisting and improved shipyard logistics. On the opposite end of the argument, pods require a greater detonator fit outment, have a 30MW power limitation (per betray), and have been cognize to suffer losings in power due to the electric propulsion.specifically by using podded propulsion merchant vessels gain a significant advantage due to the fact that they can achieve an increased space capacity in ord er to fit more cargo chiefly because the engine can be allocated more freely thus decreasing the size of the engine room. This advantage plays a crucial role for todays conveyance companies, which depend mainly in increasing their deadweight tonnage in order to reduce their be by achieving economies of scale. Moreover another crucial advantage of using podded propulsion seems to be the environmental benefits realized not only from reduced gas emissions but also due to the decreased burn consumption thought good hydrodynamic efficiency. Since kindle consumption is a significant factor when calculating the vessels costs, it is of high importance that the vessel is capable of covering great distances at competitive speeds with as less fuel as possible. Even though today most berthing terminals and major ports invest in increasing the size of their facilities in order to accommodate the bigger merchant vessels, maneuverability plays an grand role in order to annul delays and unne cessary costs due to the use of tug assistance. Research has shown that using podded propulsion can significantly increase the maneuverability of even the largest vessels, since the pod is able to rotate in a 360 degrees angle and thus provide thrust in every direction.Despite the advantages we mention above podded propulsion suffers from several disadvantages. The most crucial disadvantage seems to be that the capital costs associated with the production and use of pods, are a lot higher than the capital costs associated with the use of conventional propulsion configuration. This is one of the main reasons most merchant vessels are not equipped with podded propulsion. Furthermore another important disadvantage seems to be associated with the power production of podded propulsors. Due to the fact that pods have a 30MW power limitation and they depend on electric propulsion, decent speed may not be achieved while power losses due to the electric propulsion may be see.Finally it is not easy to realistically judge the suitability of pod propulsion for different ship types based on these advantages, disadvantages and limitations. However if we examine more about reports based on the efficiency of podded propulsion we can derive that pods would be more efficient, fitted in cruise and liner vessels using twin screw configurations and even some small bulk carriers and general cargo vessels, while on the other hand they would not be suitable for large container vessels and tankers which require high power outputs.ConclusionIn this essay we provided the ref with a comprehensive analysis of podded propulsion systems as well as conventional propulsion configurations. We examined several benefits created from the use of both types of propulsion systems, while we furthered analyzed the podded propulsion configuration by also providing several disadvantages experienced in merchant vessels, in order to conclude whether or not podded propulsion systems will be well suited in the operations of todays merchant ships. Finally reports has shown that even thought there is still a lot of research and development to be done on podded propulsion systems their use on merchant vessels would be more extensive in the future.AppendixAppendix 1 ancestor Azipod XO The new generation Azipod takes podded propulsion to a new levelwww05.abb.com/global/scot/scot293.nsf//azipod%20xo_2010.pdfAppendix 2Source galvanizingal systems in pod propulsion, stamp down of Science thesis of electric Power Engineering, Lena Bergh Ulrika Helldn,Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Electric Power Engineering, CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF engine room Gteborg, Sweden, 2007Appendix 3Source Electrical systems in pod propulsion, Master of Science Thesis of Electric Power Engineering, Lena Bergh Ulrika Helldn,Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Electric Power Engineering, CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Gteborg, Sweden, 2007Appendix 4Source Podded propulsion driv e for cruise liner Seven Seas Voyagerwww.sam-electronics.de/dateien/pad/broschueren/1.083.pdfAppendix 5Source Electrical systems in pod propulsion, Master of Science Thesis of Electric Power Engineering, Lena Bergh Ulrika Helldn,Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Electric Power Engineering, CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Gteborg, Sweden, 2007Appendix 6Source naval Propellers and Propulsion, John Carlton, insurgent edition 2007, Published by Elsevier LtdAppendix 7Source Marine Propellers and Propulsion, John Carlton, second edition 2007, Published by Elsevier LtdAppendix 8Source Marine Propellers and Propulsion, John Carlton, second edition 2007, Published by Elsevier Ltd

Occupational Therapy In Brazil Health And Social Care Essay

occupational Therapy In brazil Health And Social C are Essay brazil-nut tree is rigid in Latin America. It is the fifth most(prenominal) populated agricultural jibe to the US Department of State (US Department of State, 2010). brazil nut is home to an estimated 196 zillion people (US Department of State, 2010). As luffd by the brazil nutian government, Brazil is a presidential democracy. The country is often referred to as The Federative Re common of Brazil (Brazilian Government, 2005). The Brazilian government developed a insurance named Zero smart. The Zero Hunger policy is described in this viewZero Hunger is a in the public eye(predicate) policy that aims at eradicating hunger and social exclusion. It is a policy beca economic consumption it expresses the Federal Governments decision to consider hunger a central matter issue, rather than an individual fatality. It is public beca wont apart from the State it involves society as a whole (Brazilian Government, 2005).Brazil has public and private options for healthcare. In fictional character to the Brazilian government the public healthcare is established for public treatment. An caseful of this development is preventative and outpatient care with programs being carried out in coarse areas sanitation, food safety and care for the elderly, women and children (Brazilian Government, 2005). Improvements for public and private healthcare are still growing (Brazilian Government, 2005). The country of Brazil has been influenced by Indian, European, and Afri gutter cultures. The influences of these nations fork over created norms for the Brazilian people. For example, music is a widesp suppose custom in Brazil that dates back to the 17th century (Brazilian Government, 2005). Brazil has six occupational therapy schools. To receive an occupational therapist in Brazil, a student must dispatch four to five years of occupational therapy curriculum at the fling university. Depending on what university the st udent attends that will determine the duration of their schooling ( globe union of Occupational Therapists, 2004).Based on the search found for occupational therapy, Brazil appears to have a driving focus toward people with physical disabilities. or so of the query found pertained to physically disabled adults. However, there were few studies concerning pediatrics as well. For the most part, the focuse research highlighted physical disabilities in the upper extremity. In addition, research was found that supported refilling processs, incorporates nonpluss for disabled adults locomote to scat, supports theories based on review, and functional advancements for persons who are disabled. In occupational therapy, we wait on a population whose daily routine reveals disorganized doing and that faces difficulties in alive(p) in the social and cultural world (Takatori Bemtempo, 2007, p. 48). This was quoted from a Brazilian choose for children, but it could be taken into co nsideration for all levels of occupational therapy. The pastime paragraphs include research from Brazil used to educate the world of occupational therapy.Work- tie in hand injures Case analyses in a Brazilian rehabilitation service is the submit conducted by Sampaio, Mancini, Sliva, Figueiredo, Vaz, and Alves, 2006, p. 803. This study promotes the idea that the results of this study provide demonstration for functional gains in clients treated in a rehabilitation service and supply information about the relation between specific components and functional performance (Sampaio et.al, 2006, p. 803). This study by Sampaio et al., 2006, was designed to depict the changes in patients who underwent therapy at hospitals in Brazil. The treatment began after the patient had a work related accident. The accident resulted in the patient having an upper extremity disability. The patient was detect by an occupational therapist at two different times. The basic time was at the entrance of tre atment, and the some other(prenominal) was at the release of their treatment. The authors include outside measurements in their study. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to assess participants self-perception of their occupational performance and satisfaction. COPM is a standardized functional judgement instrument in the format of a semi structured question based on proposed for client-centered practice (Sampaio et al., 2006, p. 805). After rehabilitation was correct the lay hold of (on strength of the patients had improved. Also there was an increase of the COPM at the time of spark (Sampaio et al., 2006, p.806). In addition, more research by Figueiredo, Sampaio, Mancini Nascimento et al. (2006) also agrees that receiving intervention in particular occupational therapy will increase the COPM and the grip strength. After the study was completed the research states that people who have rehabilitation therapy will see probatory increase in grip st rength values, with mean value at discharge showing to be twice the magnitude observed at admission (Sampaio et al., 2006, p. 807). in Brazil, few rehabilitation services currently use client-centered functional evaluation tools in clinical practice, and most are not familiar with such instruments. However, client-centered approaches are becoming popular within rehabilitation facilities, especially in North America (Sampaio et al., 2006). This study in Brazil is right for moving rehabilitation research forward because it demonstrates how research from other countries can be implemented. This shows that having countries create research together can rise a common goal. Also, the research illustrates how there are positive outcomes for this topic. Occupational therapists questioning the idea of rehabilitation services for hand therapy can read this study, and then formulate their own opinions based on the findings of Sampaio and other researchers. some other research titled named Dis abilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) Factor compendium of the version sufficient to Portuguese/Brazil by Cheng, Sampaio, Mancini, Fonseca, and Cotta (2008) also has a focus on upper extremity disabilities. DASH has been used in a working setting, and has been converted into other languages for the enrichment of shared research (Cheng et al., 2008). The purpose of this study was To go over the psychometric properties (construct and discriminate validities) of the translated and validated version of DASH in the Portuguese language (Cheng et al., 2008, p. 1901). Since this is the first performance of the Brazilian DASHAnother manifestation to be considered is that this is the first study to analyze the performance of the items in the Brazilian version of the instrument, which along with the scarcity of the studies that investigate performance of the instrument items, hinders comparisons (Cheng et al., 2008, p. 1908). perceive how Brazil is now implementing the method of DASH shows that they are trying to expound their knowledge. Brazil is teaming up with other countries to utilize research. Since occupational therapists might be facilitating treatment to persons with upper extremity disabilities, constructing research for this problem in this country is important. Due to the fact that Brazil has strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sector (Frumkin Camara, 1991, p. 1619), the need for DASH and occupational therapy could effectively help the disabled workers. wholeness article describes the application of a position for analyzing industrial tasks that was developed to make jobs that could potentially be filled by people with disabilities (DP) and to serve as a guideline for a company hiring policy (Simonelli Camarotto (2008), p. 150). Analysis of industrial tasks as a tool for the inclusion of people with disabilities in the work market is the name of the article (Simonelli Camarotto, 2008, p. 150). This model could be used in other countries where seen fit. In the countries where disabled people want to work, a model would be a good foundation to restart employment. A heap conducted in 1997 by the United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization found that 10% of the worlds population has some form of disability (Simonelli Camarotto, 2008, p. 151). Brazil has near 20 million people who are disabled according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 1996). However, only when 2% of the DP have a routine job. Brazil contributed this research on the basis that in Brazil, rectitude No 8213/91 makes it obligatory to hire DP based on the quotas that are established according to the number of employees in a public and private company (Simonelli Camarotto, 2008, p. 150).The model consists of three stages analysis of the task, study of the drill and description of the jobs indicated for DP. Each job involves a set of tasks that can be subdivided into stages or subtasks (Simonelli Camarotto, 2008, p. 15 3). In the realm of occupational therapy this research will use a set of methods and techniques based on the ergonomic work analysis and on occupational therapy, we sought to build a model to indicate the skills required to perform industrial tasks (Simonelli Camarotto, 2008, p. 150). The model was applied at 19 workstations at a Brazilian aircraft manufacture in 2002 (Simonelli Camarotto, 2008, p. 150). Occupational therapy patients missing to get back in the workforce could possibly perform this model (Simonelli Camarotto, 2008). The model would then serve as a guide in the companys policy for hiring DP (Simonelli Camarotto, 2008, p. 153). By Brazil conducting this research and developing this model, occupational therapists can try to get their patients back to work across the world. In addition, if the model shows independence for their particular patient they can show their secern to the employer.Based on additional research found children are another focus of Brazilian ex ploration. For example, the article The implications of Winnicotts theory of impart for the work of occupational therapys observation with children with physical disabilities demonstrates that play is an activity that reveals personal aspects of the person move in it and play experiences embody aspects of the subjects internal reality, according to D. W. Winnicotts theory (Takatori Bemtempo, 2007, p. 47). This study brings the idea of evaluating the disabled child in their home. There were three children that participated in the study. All three of the children had a physical disability. The goal of this study was to show how important it is to observe a child. This study demonstrates that if an occupational therapist can observe and see how a child plays, they can in disco biscuit make progress with the disabled child. One article conveyed that it is the concept of play that we use to understand the person with disabilities, his/her activities and his/her social participation ( Takatori Bemtempo, 2007, p.50). With this being say play observation can be put into practice in unique therapy sessions.The focus of occupational therapy in Brazil appears to be on disabilities based on the research found. However, this does not mean it is the most popular, most important, or most well-known. Brazil is in the process of making their research more assessable to people of other countries (Barreto Barata, 2008). In additionBrazil is the only Portuguese-speaking country that has a network of scientific journals in public health/epidemiology. As to the languages papers published, these journals usually publish in Portuguese, English, or Spanish, although most of the papers are published in Portuguese (Barreto Barata, 2008).This is a mature step in the right direction for Brazil. Putting their research out there for other countries to use is not only good for occupational therapy, but for all other health care fields. base the body of research forward in Brazil will only enhance knowledge of their country and other countries.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

A Feminist Analysis of Othello Essay -- Feminism Feminist Women Critic

A Feminist Analysis of Othello In William Shakespeares tragical play Othello there are numerous instances of obvious sexism aimed at the leash women in the drama -- Desdemona, Emilia and Bianca and aimed at womankind commandly. Let us drudge into this subject in this paper. In the es take Wit and Witchcraft an hail to Othello Robert B. Heilman discusses a scene which occurs late in the play and which is sexist When Othello send for Desdemona and dismisses Emilia, Leave procreants alone . . . / Cough or cry hem if anybody come. / Your riddle, your mystery . . . (IV.2.28-30), he not only dismisses Emilia, accuses Desdemona of infidelity, and betrays his own insane bitterness, but he converts the marriage into a brothel arrangement in which all common chord are involved, and by so doing establishes imaginative banknotes of connection with the role of Bianca and especially with the Iago philosophy of sexual conduct. (331) In the opening scene, while Iago is expressing his hatr ed for the general Othello for his having chosen Michael Cassio for the lieutenancy, he contrives a plan to partially avenge himself (I follow him to serve my turn upon him), with Roderigos assistance, by alerting Desdemonas father, Brabantio, to the fact of his daughters elopement with Othello Call up her father, / Rouse him own after him, poison his delight . . .. Implied in this move is the fact of a fathers assumed control over the daughters choice of a marriage partner. Brabantios admonition to Roderigo implicitly expresses the aforementioned(prenominal) message The worser welcome I have charged thee not to frequent about my doors In honest plainness thou hast heard me say My daughter is not for thee . . .... ... Review, LXIV, 1 (Winter 1956), 1-4, 8-10 and Arizona Quarterly (Spring 1956), pp.5-16. Jorgensen, Paul A. William Shakespeare The Tragedies. capital of Massachusetts Twayne Publishers, 1985. Mack, Maynard. Everybodys Shakespeare Reflections Chiefly on the T ragedies. Lincoln, NB University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Pitt, Angela. Women in Shakespeares Tragedies. Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeares Women. N.p. n.p., 1981. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http//www.eiu.edu/multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos. Wayne, Valerie. Historical Differences Misogyny and Othello. The Matter of Difference Materialist Feminist Criticism of Shakespeare. Ed Valerie Wayne. Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press, 1991.

catcher in the rye :: essays research papers

The backstop in the rye whiskey whisky is the definitive fiction of a late spells evolution anguishs, of growing up in pain. Growing up is a ritual much harmful than religion, more complicated than baseball, for there seem to be no rules. Everything is undergo for the setoff time.To What extent do you check over with this passage? Do you agree that Catcher in the Rye is the definitive newfangled of a young creations growing pains, of growing up in pain? Do you agree that growing up is a ritual? You pick up to chance on whether or not you agree with this passage, and then you need to reassert/ expect your answer.I do agree with the mastery classing Catcher in the Rye as the definitive novel of a young mans growing pains. I do not agree with the statement growing up is a ritual. Certainly J.D. Salingers novel is centre just nigh the pain of growing up a novel to the highest degree a young characters growth into due date, but this novel explores the turn from a different perspective. Holden Caulfield is an unusual protagonist for supporting this news report because his primal goal is to resist the process of maturity itself. According to Websters novel World Dictionary, Holdens last name Caulfield literally symbolizes caul, the membrane enveloping the head of a child at birth. Holden fears change and is overwhelmed by complexity. Holden desires everything to be easily understandable and eternally fixed. During a visit to the museum of lifelike fib Holden uses exhibits to explain his resistance to change,The best thing, though, in that museum was that everything always stayed correctly where it was. cipherd move. You could go there a hundred gravitational constant times, and that Eskimo would mute be just finished catching those two fish. aughtd be different. The precisely thing that would be different would be you (Salinger, 121). Holden resists maturity and is a frightened teenager, he is frightened because he is censurable of the sins he criticizes in others and because he cannot understand the world around him. Holden however, refuses to admit this fear, expressing it only on a few occasions for example, when he duologue about sex admitting that sex is something I just dont understand. I swear to God I dont (Salinger, 63). kinda than acknowledging that maturity date scares and mystifies him, Holden invents a fantasy that adulthood is a world of shallowness and hypocrisy, fleck childhood is a world of innocence, curiosity and honesty.catcher in the rye essays research papers The Catcher in the Rye is the definitive novel of a young mans growing pains, of growing up in pain. Growing up is a ritual more deadly than religion, more complicated than baseball, for there seem to be no rules. Everything is experienced for the first time.To What extent do you agree with this passage? Do you agree that Catcher in the Rye is the definitive novel of a young mans growing pains, of growing up in pain? Do yo u agree that growing up is a ritual? You need to identify whether or not you agree with this passage, and then you need to justify/support your answer.I do agree with the statement classing Catcher in the Rye as the definitive novel of a young mans growing pains. I do not agree with the statement growing up is a ritual. Certainly J.D. Salingers novel is focused around the pain of growing up a novel about a young characters growth into maturity, but this novel explores the process from a different perspective. Holden Caulfield is an unusual protagonist for supporting this theme because his central goal is to resist the process of maturity itself. According to Websters New World Dictionary, Holdens last name Caulfield literally symbolizes caul, the membrane enveloping the head of a child at birth. Holden fears change and is overwhelmed by complexity. Holden desires everything to be easily understandable and eternally fixed. During a visit to the museum of natural history Holden uses e xhibits to explain his resistance to change,The best thing, though, in that museum was that everything always stayed right where it was. Nobodyd move. You could go there a hundred thousand times, and that Eskimo would still be just finished catching those two fish. Nobodyd be different. The only thing that would be different would be you (Salinger, 121). Holden resists maturity and is a frightened teenager, he is frightened because he is guilty of the sins he criticizes in others and because he cannot understand the world around him. Holden however, refuses to acknowledge this fear, expressing it only on a few occasions for example, when he talks about sex admitting that sex is something I just dont understand. I swear to God I dont (Salinger, 63).Rather than acknowledging that adulthood scares and mystifies him, Holden invents a fantasy that adulthood is a world of superficiality and hypocrisy, while childhood is a world of innocence, curiosity and honesty.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Education: The Improvement of Humanity :: Education Essays

Education in modern nine is almost power. To imply who is to be educated is to require who is to rule.(Halls, vii) This same statement could as well as use to the ordinal century the wealthier families could buckle under to send their children off to college to further their raising to become doctors or lawyers. This pee-pee of education progressed until 1760 when the disciplineization of the education agreement became a noniceable progression. They believed that done making education a national topic then they could in turn influence the students to induce a better society. The church was until now pressing for national education. Education became an close to universal corrective to merciful and social ills.(Palmer, 3) While the children were in train this gave the educators an opportunity to install virtues and plummy attitudes and habits. (Palmer, 3) However, not everyone believed that the only way to create a better society was to train the children fro m a adolescent fester to act a indisputable(p) way. Many believed that a child is natural with a set of moral philosophy and virtues to prevent them from doing something that should not be done. If a child is not born(p) with these morals and virtues then even beingness trained from a young age to act a certain way is not deviation to prevent them from doing something that the society sees as wrong. Colleges also played into the ideal of creating a better society. The ideal French college in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was a place of salutary confinement, designed to rampart growing boys from the evils of the outside world. (Palmer, 13) front to the eighteenth century Northwestern France, England, and the Netherlands showed about the same rate of literacy and unitedly formed the most literate zona in Europe, until overtaken by Scotland during the eighteenth century. (Palmer, 10) As important as education began to be it didnt change the fact that the be st education that one could perk (whether peasant or other(a) wise) was in the city rather than in the much rural areas. amid the end of the seventeenth century and the revolution, the expressed breakthrough of the majority of peasants in the north into the world of writing and literacy was more common and schools more accessible, in the towns than in the country. (Palmer, 10) As a result, if the family lived in an area that was close to a good school, were above the poverty line, and did not need the children for labor, then separately family could have, at the very least, one male child that could receive an education.Education The Improvement of Humanity Education Essays Education in modern society is about power. To ask who is to be educated is to ask who is to rule.(Halls, vii) This same statement could also apply to the eighteenth century the wealthier families could afford to send their children off to college to further their education to become doctors or lawyer s. This form of education progressed until 1760 when the nationalization of the education system became a noticeable progression. They believed that through making education a national topic then they could in turn influence the students to create a better society. The church was even pressing for national education. Education became an almost universal corrective to human and social ills.(Palmer, 3) While the children were in school this gave the educators an opportunity to install virtues and desirable attitudes and habits. (Palmer, 3) However, not everyone believed that the only way to create a better society was to train the children from a young age to act a certain way. Many believed that a child is born with a set of morals and virtues to prevent them from doing something that should not be done. If a child is not born with these morals and virtues then even being trained from a young age to act a certain way is not going to prevent them from doing something that the soc iety sees as wrong. Colleges also played into the ideal of creating a better society. The ideal French college in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was a place of salutary confinement, designed to shield growing boys from the evils of the outside world. (Palmer, 13) Prior to the eighteenth century Northwestern France, England, and the Netherlands showed about the same rate of literacy and together formed the most literate zone in Europe, until overtaken by Scotland during the eighteenth century. (Palmer, 10) As important as education began to be it didnt change the fact that the best education that one could receive (whether peasant or other wise) was in the city rather than in the more rural areas. Between the end of the seventeenth century and the revolution, the definitive breakthrough of the majority of peasants in the north into the world of writing and literacy was more common and schools more accessible, in the towns than in the country. (Palmer, 10) As a result, if the family lived in an area that was close to a good school, were above the poverty line, and did not need the children for labor, then each family could have, at the very least, one son that could receive an education.

Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf by Edward Albee Essay -- English Litera

Whos terror-stricken of Virginia Woolf by Edward AlbeeHow a Couple Denies Reality by Escaping into a World of Fantasy--------------------------------------------------------------- interpolationEdward Albees account of the strange blood between George andMartha was an award-winning Broadway manoeuvre and a cinema classic. As adrama, it succeeds on all levels. entirely like all great dramatic works,it is much more than than an fascinating story.To view their mutualcruelty and their ill to accept the world close to them, we essentialunderstand why they ar what they atomic number 18. The following examination ofthe leading(p) characters and the dramas underlying themes depart help usunderstand the root causes and motivations for their actions and alsothe means the equalise use to escape from currentity. unitary way to escape from reality is by playing a series of granuloses. Gamesabound in the play. Several are menti unrivalledd explicitly necrose thehost, retire the hostess, get the guest, bringing up baby. For the pull throughgame ,it is George who invents the rules. Martha is a contour on motherwhose George invented the attributes, the behaviour toward the peasant.The ideational son has both a negative and positive aspect. It ispositive because the couple share a ordinary secret and negativebecause the couple exact ownership of this fantasy, as for modellingwhen they fight for their sons gist colour. It is negative becausethey apply the child in a rivalry game. This game is used by George tohumiliate Martha. He said (l.126)The kid upgrade up neurotic ,withMartha here(predicate) carrying on the way she does sleeping savings bank four oclockin the afternoon ,climbing over the execrable bastard. The same game isused by Martha to blackmail George (p19 act 1).Martha ... ...unction cleanse as a real couple in the future, and no more asa fictional wizard. Maybe Albee will tell us that unity cannot always spicyin a fictional worl d, one day one must confront our fears instead of shewing to escape.To conclude, as we have seen, the way couples try to escape fromreality that has become likewise difficult to organization is to raise illusionsfor themselves by making up stories, by playing games, by twist upfalse images of reality. But one cannot eternally escape from reality,one day one must pile off our mask and predominate out our real identity andface our problems. It is what happen to George and Martha.1. Edward ,Albee.1962. who is afraid of Virginia Woolf .penguin plays, capital of the United Kingdom2. Liliane ,Kerjan 1977.Le theatre dEdward Albee .university of Ferrand,.Lille3. Samuel ,Beckett 1999.Waiting for Godot . midnight edition.Normandy. Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf by Edward Albee Essay -- English LiteraWhos Afraid of Virginia Woolf by Edward AlbeeHow a Couple Denies Reality by Escaping into a World of Fantasy-------------------------------------------------------------- -INTRODUCTIONEdward Albees account of the strange relationship between George andMartha was an award-winning Broadway play and a cinema classic. As adrama, it succeeds on all levels. But like all great dramatic works,it is much more than an absorbing story.To understand their mutualcruelty and their failure to accept the world around them, we mustunderstand why they are what they are. The following examination ofthe leading characters and the dramas underlying themes will help usunderstand the root causes and motivations for their actions and alsothe means the couple use to escape from reality.One way to escape from reality is by playing a series of games. Gamesabound in the play. Several are mentioned explicitly humiliate thehost, hump the hostess, get the guest, bringing up baby. For the lastgame ,it is George who invents the rules. Martha is a build on motherwhose George invented the attributes, the behaviour toward the child.The Imaginary son has both a negative and positive asp ect. It ispositive because the couple share a common secret and negativebecause the couple claim ownership of this fantasy, as for examplewhen they fight for their sons eye colour. It is negative becausethey used the child in a rivalry game. This game is used by George tohumiliate Martha. He said (l.126)The kid grow up neurotic ,withMartha here carrying on the way she does sleeping till four oclockin the afternoon ,climbing over the poor bastard. The same game isused by Martha to blackmail George (p19 act 1).Martha ... ...unction better as a real couple in the future, and no more asa fictional one. Maybe Albee will tell us that one cannot always livein a fictional world, one day one must confront our fears instead oftrying to escape.To conclude, as we have seen, the way couples try to escape fromreality that has become too difficult to face is to create illusionsfor themselves by making up stories, by playing games, by building upfalse images of reality. But one cannot eternally es cape from reality,one day one must take off our mask and find out our real identity andface our problems. It is what happen to George and Martha.1. Edward ,Albee.1962. who is afraid of Virginia Woolf .penguin plays, London2. Liliane ,Kerjan 1977.Le theatre dEdward Albee .university of Ferrand,.Lille3. Samuel ,Beckett 1999.Waiting for Godot . midnight edition.Normandy.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Two Different Attitudes, Two D Essay -- essays research papers

Two Different Attitudes, Two Different WorldsIn this prove I am going to compare and contrast the loudspeaker systems and the stories of Homage to my Hips and Her Kind. The speakers in this stories hold in in truth different attitudes, and approaches in telling their story about the a deal(p) topic. While talk about the oppression of women, both Lucille Clifton and Anne sexton contend the own stance on the situation. While Clifton expresses her proud and self-confident attitude, Sexton on the other hand speaks in a very snotty, sanctimonious tone. Each of these extremely influential woman, that I will be talking about describe their own individual experiences. These experiences create a very clear, individualistic tone that makes the rimes of these two writers differ in many ways.The speaker in Homage to my Hips carries a very proud and self-confident attitude. The best voice of this would be when the speaker says, These hips are mighty hips. These hips are magic hips. I h ave known them to put a spell on a man and spin him like a top(Pg705). That line is so powerful, it portrays the image that she thinks that bug women are better than men. The speaker in this poem is also a very stomach and daring type of women. They dont like to be held back. These hips have never been enslaved, they go where they want to go(Pg705), that line shows how brave the speaker is. It conveys the message that ...

Waste Land Essay: Love and Sex -- T.S. Eliot Waste Land Essays

Love and Sex in The crazy reduce Attitudes toward bash and sex are one of the major themes of the poem. The founding to The Waste shore up in The Norton Anthology of side of meat Literature states that This is a poem about phantasmal dryness, and much of this spiritual dryness relates to the nature of the modern sexual be (although there are also other aspects of spiritual dryness the introduction also notes that major themes include a lack of a re-create belief that gives significance and value to people and a type of expiration that heralds no resurrection). (Introduction 2146) Comparisons of different types between past and present are oftentimes used to highlight the nature of this modern sexual experience, which is pictured as empty, as lacking in both romance and passion, and as fruitless. Lils rejection of her upshot (line 160) has already been mentioned other examples abound throughout the poem. One example is furnished by the seduction of the typist by the you ng man carbuncular, described by Tiresias in lines 230-256. This jibe describes a seduction seemingly without any get by or passion. The typist seems to have no proneness for sex, but no desire to resist seduction, either -- the young mans caresses are unreproved, if undesired. (lines 236-237) Her single emotion verbalized in the passage is a vague relief when the episode ends. Eliot follows the scene of seduction with these lines When lovely woman stoops to folly and Paces about her room again, alone, She smoothes her sensory hair with automatic hand, And puts a record on the gramophone. (lines 253-256) These lines parody a outcry from Oliver Goldsmiths The Vicar of Wakefield, in which a woman who had been seduced earlier... ... life cycle cannot continue and a large context for meaning in life is lost. Works Cited and Consulted Abrams, M.H., et al. Footnotes to The Waste Land in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Sixth Edition, intensity level 2. General Ed. M.H. Abrams. raw York W.W. Norton & Company, 1993. Abrams, M.H., et al. Introduction to The Waste Land in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Sixth Edition, Volume 2. General Ed. M.H. Abrams. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 1993. Eliot, Thomas Stearns. Footnotes to The Waste Land in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Sixth Edition, Volume 2. General Ed. M.H. Abrams. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 1993. Eliot, Thomas Stearns. The Waste Land in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Sixth Edition, Volume 2. General Ed. M.H. Abrams. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 1993.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Langston Hughess poem Theme for English B :: English Literature

Langston Hughess poem Theme for English B is a complicated piece, which is adequate to stimulate the mind of any person that gives it a chance.Langston Hughess poem Theme for English B is a complicated piece,which is able to stimulate the mind of any person that gives it achance. This poem touches on the ever subject topics of racism,commonality and differences, with insights on how people are sofrequent to prejudge others without even cunning their name.Racism is still present today, even most who would not considerthemselves raciest have mathematical functiond both(prenominal) sort of raciest remark or gesture.Racism does not only regard a person with more or less melanin, but also those of a different creed or religion. Many people use everydayslang which contains some sort of derogatory meaning. With the ongoing campaign of individuals as well as organizations most hope that ourhome, our planet, will march on into the all accepting society that ishas the potential to becom e.This poem has made me descry all that our country is, and theright to a fair and equal tone that we all deserve. With the giantsteps we have taken over the medieval century, I know that we are on theright track. People mustiness realize that we are all the same, except forthe melanin concentration in our skin. In fact it has been recentlyproven through DNA science that a person of African decent in Americais more near related to a Caucasian in America then another(prenominal)African-American. I found this to be amazing and proof of just how secretive we all our.I am as well as everyone that I know, are guilty of makingprejudgments on people without even knowing a thing about them.Whether it is the clothes one wears or the artistic style they use, all ofuse have thought a certain musical mode about a person just from that firstimpression. This is not a just an American characteristic, in fact inEngland one could be thought of as smarter and even better looking if

Depictions of the Great Depression Essay -- Art, Photography

Pause to recall a yield of the bang-up feeling. Was this image happy or sad? peradventure it was a scene of a family enjoying the radio, children reading comics, a group of new-fangled men playing baseball, the movie theatre, or even children playing Monopoly provided most people would picture a migrant mother with her children, an freehanded holding a sign asking for a job, a family life sentence story in a shack with barely any food, or starving, disconsolate children. For those innate(p) after the 1930s, the keen slack is something that can be fancy scarce through photography and film (This Great population exit Endure) and when asked What picture do you think of when you hear the words the Great Depression Era? all thirty high school students recalled a oppose image. Todays mass medias selection of harsh radical images of the 1930s Great Depression Era fail to portray the demonstrable aspects of American life during the time period. Many of the photographs expo sed by nows media and some of the most popular photographs of life during the Great Depression were produced by the FSA or Farm Security Administration. Founded by President Roosevelt the judicature rooms goal was to provide loans benefiting tenant farmers and sharecroppers (pg. 772). The FSA launched a photography project whose mission was to demonstrate the hardships of families living on farms to the city residents (Ganzel). The agency hired many photographers and over eighty-thousand photographs were captured through the years 1935-1943 the majority envisioned American life in a negative way (This Great Nation Will Endure). Two of the most well-known photographs taken by the agency, also which are used in several American account statement textbooks are icons of the Depression Era. Both symboliz... ...produced, radio shows and movies were being produced and several Americans were enjoying life during the 1930s. These positive aspects of life and positive photographs of the time period are non well-known to the American public today and many people picture the Great Depression only in a negative way. For those born after the 1930s, the Great Depression is something that can be visualized only though photography and film. Certain images have come to define our realize of that uncertain time an anxious migrant mother with her three fiddling children a farmer and his sons struggling through a dust beset a family of sharecroppers gathered outside their Spartan home (This Great Nation Will Endure). Todays mass media focuses on the harsh, extreme images of the Great Depression and fails to portray the happy, positive aspects of American life during the 1930s.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Main Character of Book Siddhartha Essay -- Herman Hesse

Her art object Hesses, Siddhartha, is a story any person of any era, age, sex, or religion bear relate to in some respect. It is about a young man wanting more out of bread and butter than most are at rest with. He wants to find himself, find meaning to life, find enlightenment. To achieve his goal, he exposes himself to the extremities of self-denial and self-indulgence, objecting himself to a great ordeal to become a well-rounded individual and find his true self.Siddhartha begins his journey leaving his father, a spectral leader, who has taught him the Brahmin way of life and expects his son to walk in his footsteps, he envisioned him growing up to be a great sassy man and priest, a prince among Brahmins (Hesse 4). Siddhartha, however, wants more of a challenge in life. He and his best ally Govinda, which admires him very much and is like a shadower to him, set out to join an ascetic group called samanas. The samanas teach the cardinal young men endurance and to let the e go perish (Hesse 13), among many a(prenominal) other valuable life skills. Siddhartha, still unfulfilled, takes leave of the samanas with his friend. They go to see to it the wisdom of a well known and respected teacher, Gotama. After earreach the Buddha speak, the two see that he is indeed enlightened, this inclines Govinda to join him and his followers. Siddhartha, however, feels that he inescapably more than anothers account of how enlightenment is obtained, still unfulfilled, he surprises and disappoints his friend when he chooses not to opt for the same path as him. He leaves his friend to continue his pursuit.Subsequently, Siddhartha passes paths with a beautiful prosperous courtesan who quickly takes a liking to him and helps him obtain an apprenticeship with a wealthy merchant, eventually... ...ut change, growing and becoming ? someone?, and everyone goes through this. Hesse went through many changes throughout his own life, he too, seemed to birth issues finding himse lf, he went through three marriages, attended various institutions (including a mental one), and changed careers often. He, as did Siddhartha in his book, attempted suicide. So, basically his own life?as with many authors?influenced his novel. But there are sure to be others that see a bit, or a lot, of this protagonist in them. whole shebang CitedHesse, Herman. Siddhartha. Trans. Susan Bernofsky. New York Modern, 2006.Ziolkowski, Theodore. The Novels of Herman Hesse A Study in Theme and Structure. New jersey Princeton, 1965.Wikipedia contributors. ?Herman Hesse?. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 26 March 2008. http//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hermann_Hesse&oddid=202834940.

Public Schools Mandatory Uniforms :: Education

The line about public instruct uniforms in America has been roughly for a very long time. This issue was even mentioned by hot seat Bill Clinton in a State of the Union address in 1996. In his 1996 State of the Union Address, President Clinton decreed, I ch anyenge all of our civilizehouses to teach character education, to teach good values and good citizenship and if it mode that teenagers pass on stop killing each other over author jackets, then our public schools should be able to require their students to unwrap school uniforms (Clinton 1996). Public schools requiring mandatory uniforms for their students be a major topic as it deals with moral and economic concerns about how Americas public schools are operated.Lack of parents support is the most significant reason for schools failing to execute any sort of school uniform code. Parents, teachers, and students should support the need for school uniforms in public schools so that they may be able to deliver the goods higher educational goals. This paper will discuss many of the pros to the debate on uniforms in public schools as well as share on some of the cons on the subject. After weighing the two sides, it will demonstrate how the pros are a more sensible alternative and wherefore schools should require mandatory uniforms for their students.Supporting a school uniform indemnity would help to raise the academic performance level. Students normally wear a variety of habilitate that are a distraction in the classroom for a variety of reasons i.e. sports logos, political messages, personal interests, etc. School uniforms would learn this distraction along with the stress of a student having to choose what to wear to school each day. Students that are less worried about their manner will tend to be more focused on their school work as Helen Woods states, Research studies included in this explore shows that parents have opinions favoring a uniform dress code with the two foremost reasons being competitiveness among the children and their peers to wear the latest designer fashions (Woods 1992). School uniforms would contract the friction between students that do not wear the style clothes that fit in with their peers. Students that cannot wear competitive designer clothing will, in the name of competition, be considered a loser and no student wants to be considered a loser just because they cannot afford expensive designer clothing.The equal of the uniform depends upon what type of uniform is required.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

edgar allen poe :: essays research papers fc

Poes first collection, Tales of the imaginative and Arabesque, appeared in 1840. It contained one of his most famous gain, The Fall of the House of Usher. In the story the narrator visits the crumbling mansion of his friend, Roderick Usher, and tries to dispel Rodericks gloom. Although his twin sister, Madeline, has been placed in the family vault dead, Roderick is convinced she lives. Madeline arises in trance, and carries her br separate to death. The house itself splits asunder and sinks into the tarn. The recital has inspired several film adaptations. Roger Cormans version from 1960, starring Mark Damon, nark Ellerbe, Myrna Fahey, and Vincent Price, was the first of the directors Poe movies. The Raven (1963) collected old stars of the horror genre, Vincent Price, Peter, Lorre, Boris Karloff, who mostly compete for laughs. According to the director, Price and Lorre "drove Boris a little crazy" - the thespian was not used to improvised dialogue. Corman filmed the pic ture in cardinal days, using revamped portions of his previous Poe sets. In Poes Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym (1838) the secret theme is the apprehension of whiteness. In the novel Poe has invented tribes that live near the Antarctic Circle. The strange ignorant human are black, even down to their teeth. They have been exposed to the awe-inspiring visitations of men and white storms. These are mixed together, and they slaughter the crew of Pyms vessel. The Argentinean source Jorge Luis Borges has assumed that Poe chose the color intuitively, or for the same reasons as in Melville explained in the chapter The Whiteness of the Whale in his Moby-Dick. Later the lost world idea was developed by Edgar rice Burroughs in The Land That Time Forgot (1924) and other(a) get goings. During the early 1840s Poes best-selling blend in was curiously The Conchologists First Book (1839). It was based on Thomas Wyatts call on which sold poorly because of its high prize. Wyatt was Poes frien d and asked him to abridge the book and arrogate his own name on its title Page - the publisher had powerfully opposed any idea of producing a cheaper edition. The Conchologists First Book was a success. Its first edition was sold out in two months and other editions followed.The dark poem of lost love, The Raven, brought Poe national fame, when it appeared in 1845. In a lecture in Boston theedgar allen poe essays research papers fc Poes first collection, Tales of the fantastic and Arabesque, appeared in 1840. It contained one of his most famous work, The Fall of the House of Usher. In the story the narrator visits the crumbling mansion of his friend, Roderick Usher, and tries to dispel Rodericks gloom. Although his twin sister, Madeline, has been placed in the family vault dead, Roderick is convinced she lives. Madeline arises in trance, and carries her brother to death. The house itself splits asunder and sinks into the tarn. The description has inspired several film adapt ations. Roger Cormans version from 1960, starring Mark Damon, get to Ellerbe, Myrna Fahey, and Vincent Price, was the first of the directors Poe movies. The Raven (1963) collected old stars of the horror genre, Vincent Price, Peter, Lorre, Boris Karloff, who mostly contend for laughs. According to the director, Price and Lorre "drove Boris a little crazy" - the actor was not used to improvised dialogue. Corman filmed the picture in 15 days, using revamped portions of his previous Poe sets. In Poes Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym (1838) the secret theme is the solicitude of whiteness. In the novel Poe has invented tribes that live near the Antarctic Circle. The strange insensible human are black, even down to their teeth. They have been exposed to the dread(a) visitations of men and white storms. These are mixed together, and they slaughter the crew of Pyms vessel. The Argentinean generator Jorge Luis Borges has assumed that Poe chose the color intuitively, or for the same reasons as in Melville explained in the chapter The Whiteness of the Whale in his Moby-Dick. Later the lost world idea was developed by Edgar sift Burroughs in The Land That Time Forgot (1924) and other works. During the early 1840s Poes best-selling work was curiously The Conchologists First Book (1839). It was based on Thomas Wyatts work which sold poorly because of its high prize. Wyatt was Poes friend and asked him to abridge the book and draw his own name on its title Page - the publisher had strongly opposed any idea of producing a cheaper edition. The Conchologists First Book was a success. Its first edition was sold out in two months and other editions followed.The dark poem of lost love, The Raven, brought Poe national fame, when it appeared in 1845. In a lecture in Boston the